Technetium (Tc) (Z = 43) and promethium (Z = 61) are the only elements below bismuth (Z = 83) in atomic number that have no stable isotopes. The discovery of these unusual elements is described, and the physical factors leading to their instability are discussed.


Stable Isotope Atomic Number Fission Product Mass Number Valence Neutron 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

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