Advertisement

Benign Diseases of the Cervix

  • Thomas C. Wright
  • Brigitte M. Ronnett
  • Alex Ferenczy
Reference work entry

Abstract

The uterus is divided into the corpus, isthmus, and cervix [63]. The cervix (term taken from the Latin, meaning neck) is the most inferior portion of the uterus, protruding into the upper vagina. The transition between the endocervix and the lower portion of the uterine corpus is termed the isthmus or lower uterine segment. The latter is used for descriptive purposes during gestation and labor and is an important landmark for the pathologist when describing cancers of the uterine corpus. The muscular layer in the region of the isthmus is less well developed than in the corpus, a feature that facilitates effacement and dilation during labor. The vagina is fused circumferentially and obliquely to the distal part of the cervix and is divided into an upper, supervaginal, and lower vaginal portion. The cervix measures 2.5–3 cm in length in the adult nulligravida, and when normally positioned, is angled slightly downward and backward. The vaginal portion (portio vaginalis) of the cervix, also referred to as the exocervix, is delimited by the anterior and posterior vaginal fornices; it has a convex elliptical surface.

Keywords

Squamous Epithelium Squamous Metaplasia Squamocolumnar Junction Hysterectomy Specimen Parabasal Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Abell MR (1971) Papillary adenofibroma of the uterine cervix. Am J Obstet Gynecol 110(7):990–993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abell MR, Gosling JRG (1962) Gland cell carcinoma (adenocarcinoma) of the uterine cervix. Am J Obstet Gynecol 83:729PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Abenoza P, Shek YH, Perrone T (1994) Inflammatory pseudotumor of the cervix. Int J Gynecol Pathol 13:80–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Agarwal J, Gupta JK (1993) Female genital tuberculosis – a retrospective clinico-pathologic study of 501 cases. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 36(4):389–397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Akang EE, Matiluko AA, Omigbodun AO et al (1997) Cervicovaginitis emphysematosa mimicking carcinoma of the cervix: a case report. Afr J Med Med Sci 26(1–2):99–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Al-Nafussi AI, Klys HS, Rebello G et al (1993) The assessment of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunostaining in the uterine cervix and cervical squamous neoplasia. Int J Gynecol Cancer 3:154–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Baker PM, Clement PB, Bell DA et al (1999) Superficial endometriosis of the uterine cervix: a report of 20 cases of a process that may be confused with endocervical glandular dysplasia or adenocarcinoma in situ. Int J Gynecol Pathol 18:198–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Berchuck A, Rodriguez G, Kamel A et al (1990) Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and HER-2/Neu in normal and neoplastic cervix, vulva and vagina. Obstet Gynecol 76:381–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bhagavan BS, Ruffier J, Shinn B (1982) Pseudoactinomycotic radiate granules in the lower female genital tract: relationship to the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon. Hum Pathol 13(10):898–904PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brown LJR, Wells M (1986) Cervical glandular atypia associated with squamous intraepithelial neoplasia: a premalignant lesion? J Clin Pathol 39:22–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Burd LI, Easterly JR (1971) Vesicular lesions of the uterine cervix. Am J Obstet Gynecol 110:887–888PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cho NH, Kim YT, Kim JW (1997) Correlation between G1 cyclins and HPV in the uterine cervix. Int J Gynecol Pathol 16:339–347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Clement PB (1985) Multinucleated stromal giant cells of the uterine cervix. Arch Pathol Lab Med 109:200–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Clement PB, Young RH (1989) Deep Nabothian cysts of the uterine cervix. A possible source of confusion with minimal-deviation adenocarcinoma (adenoma malignum). Int J Gynecol Pathol 8:340–348PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Concetti H, Retegui M, Perez G et al (2000) Chagas’ disease of the cervix uteri in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Hum Pathol 31(1):120–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Coppleson M, Pixley E, Reid B (1971) Colposcopy: a scientific and practical approach to the cervix in health and disease. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, ILGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Crum CP, Mitao M, Winkler B et al (1984) Localizing chlamydial infection in cervical biopsies with the immunoperoxidase technique. Int J Gynecol Pathol 3(2):191–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Curtis EM, Pine L (1981) Actinomyces in the vaginas of women with and without intrauterine contraceptive devices. Am J Obstet Gynecol 140(8):880–884PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Duggan MA (2000) Cytologic and histologic diagnosis and significance of controversial squamous lesions of the uterine cervix. Mod Pathol 13(3):252–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Egan AJ, Russell P (1997) Transitional (urothelial) cell metaplasia of the uterine cervix: morphological assessment of 31 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 16(2):89–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Elliott GB, Elliott JDA (1973) Superficial stromal reactions of the lower genital tract. Arch Pathol 95:100–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Evans CS, Goldman RL, Klein HZ et al (1984) Necrobiotic granulomas of the uterine cervix: a probable postoperative reaction. Am J Surg Pathol 8(11):841–844PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fand SB (1973) The histochemistry of human cervical epithelium. In: Blandau RJ, Moghissi K (eds) The biology of the cervix. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, pp 103–124Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ferenczy A, Richard RM (1974) Female reproductive system: dynamics of scan and transmission electron microscopy. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ferry JA, Scully RE (1990) Mesonephric remnants, hyperplasia, and neoplasia in the uterine cervix – a study of 49 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 14(12):1100–1111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fetissof F, Serres G, Arbeille B et al (1991) Argyrophilic cells and ectocervical epithelium. Int J Gynecol Pathol 10(2):177–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fluhmann CF (1961) Focal hyperplasia (tunnel clusters) of the cervix uteri. Obstet Gynecol 17:206–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fluhmann FC (1961) The cervix uteri and its diseases. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PAGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Franke WW, Moll R, Achtstaetter T et al (1986) Cell typing of epithelial and carcinomas of the female genital tract using cytoskeletal proteins as markers. In: Peto R, zur Hausen H (eds) Banbury report 21: Viral etiology of cervical cancer. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NYGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fratini D, Cavaliere A (1996) Papillary adenofibroma of the uterine cervix: a case report. Pathologica 88(2):135–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fujiwara H, Tortolero-Luna G, Mitchell MF et al (1997) Adenocarcinoma of the cervix: expression and clinical significance of estrogen and progesterone receptors. Cancer 79(3):505–512PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gardner HL (1966) Cervical and vaginal endometriosis. Clin Obstet Gynecol 9:358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gardner HL, Fernet P (1964) Etiology of vaginitis emphysematosa. Am J Obstet Gynecol 88:680PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gilks CB, Young RH, Clement PB et al (1996) Adenomyomas of the uterine cervix of endocervical type: a report of ten cases of a benign cervical tumor that may be confused with adenoma malignum. Mod Pathol 9(3):220–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gould PR, Barter RA, Papadimitriou JM (1979) An ultrastructural, cytochemical and autoradiographic study of the mucous membrane of the human cervical canal with reference to subcolumnar cells. Am J Pathol 95:1–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Greeley C, Schroeder S, Silverberg SG (1995) Microglandular hyperplasia of the cervix: a true “pill” lesion? Int J Gynecol Pathol 14(1):50–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gudson JT (1965) Hemangioma of the cervix. Am J Obstet Gynecol 91:204Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hariri J, Ingemanssen JL (1993) Multinucleated stromal giant cells of the uterine cervix. Int J Gynecol Pathol 12:228–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Harnden P, Kennedy W, Andrew AC et al (1999) Immunophenotype of transitional metaplasia of the uterine cervix. Int J Gynecol Pathol 18(2):125–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hernandez-Rodriguez J, Tan CD, Rodriguez ER et al (2009) Gynecologic vasculitis: an analysis of 163 patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 88(3):169–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hollowell ML, Goulart RA, Gang DL et al (2007) Cytologic features of mullerian papilloma of the cervix: mimic of malignancy. Diagn Cytopathol 35(9):607–611PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Holmes KK, Stamm WE (1999) Lower genital tract infections in women. In: Holmes KK, Sparling PF, Mardhet P-A (eds) Sexually transmitted diseases. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 761–782Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hoosen AA, Draper G, Moodley J et al (1990) Granuloma inguinale of the cervix: a carcinoma look-alike. Genitourin Med 66(5):380–382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Huffman JW (1948) Mesonephric remnants in the cervix. Am J Obstet Gynecol 56:23–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ibrahim EM, Blackett AD, Tidy JA et al (1999) CD44 is a marker of endocervical neoplasia. Int J Gynecol Pathol 18:101–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ismail SM (1991) Cone biopsy causes cervical endometriosis and tubo-endometrioid metaplasia. Histopathol 18(2):107–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Johansson EL, Rudin A, Wassen L et al (1999) Distribution of lymphocytes and adhesion molecules in human cervix and vagina. Immunology 96(2):272–277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Johnson CA, Lorenzetti LA, Liese BS et al (1991) Clinical significance of hyperkeratosis on otherwise normal Papanicolaou smears. J Fam Pract 33(4):354–358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Johnson LD (1973) Dysplasia and carcinoma in-situ in pregnancy. In: Norris HJ, Hertig AT, Abell MR (eds) The Uterus International Academy of Pathology monographs. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, pp 382–412Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Jonasson JG, Wang HH, Antonioli DA et al (1992) Tubal metaplasia of the uterine cervix: a prevalence study in patients with gynecologic pathologic findings. Int J Gynecol Pathol 11(2):89–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Jones MA (1998) Transitional cell metaplasia and neoplasia in the female genital tract: an update. Adv Anat Pathol 5(2):106–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Jones MA, Young RH (1996) Endocervical type A (noncystic) tunnel clusters with cytologic atypia. A report of 14 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 20:1312–1318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Jones MA, Young RH, Scully RE (1991) Diffuse laminar endocervical glandular hyperplasia: a benign lesion often confused with adenoma malignum. Am J Surg Pathol 15:1123–1129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kanai M, Shiozawa T, Xin L et al (1998) Immunohistochemical detection of sex steroid receptors, cyclins, and cyclin-dependent kinases in the normal and neoplastic squamous epithelia of the uterine cervix. Cancer 82(9):1709–1719PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Karakitsos P, Kyroudes A, Apostolaki C et al (1994) The evaluation of PCNA/cyclin expression in cervical intraepithelial lesions. Gynecol Oncol 55:101–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kaufman RH, Watts JM, Gardner HL (1969) Pemphigus vulgaris: genital involvement. Report of two cases. Obstet Gynecol 33(2):264–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kawauchi S, Kusuda T, Liu XP et al (2008) Is lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia a cancerous precursor of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma?: a comparative molecular-genetic and immunohistochemical study. Am J Surg Pathol 32(12):1807–1815PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kay S, Schneider V (1985) Reactive spindle cell nodule of the endocervix simulating uterine sarcoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol 4:255–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kazakov DV, Mukensnabl P, Kacerovska D et al (2009) Mantle structures in the uterine cervix. Int J Gynecol Pathol 28(6):568–569PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Konishi I, Fujii S, Nonogaki H et al (1991) Immunohistochemical analysis of estrogen receptors, Ki-67 antigen, and human papillomavirus DNA in normal and neoplastic epithelium of the uterine cervix. Cancer 68:1340–1350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Koss LG (1992) Diagnostic cytology and its histopathologic basis. J.B. Lippincott, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Koss LG (1998) Transitional cell metaplasia. Adv Anat Pathol 5(3):202–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Krantz KE (1973) The anatomy of the human cervix, gross and microscopic. In: Blandau RJ, Moghissi K (eds) The biology of the cervix. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, ILGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lane BR, Ross JH, Hart WR et al (2005) Mullerian papilloma of the cervix in a child with multiple renal cysts. Urology 65(2):388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Laurtizen AF, Meinecke G (1987) Isolated arteritis of the uterine cervix. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 66:659–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lesack D, Wahab I, Bilks CB (1996) Radiation-induced atypia of endocervical epithelium: a histological, immunohistochemical and cytometric study. Int J Gynecol Pathol 15:242–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lippes J (1999) Pelvic actinomycosis: a review and preliminary look at prevalence. Am J Obstet Gynecol 180(2 Pt 1):265–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Manickam A, Sivanandham M, Tourkova IL (2007) Immunological role of dendritic cells in cervical cancer. Adv Exp Med Biol 601:155–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    McCluggage WG (2007) Immunohistochemistry as a diagnostic aid in cervical pathology. Pathology 39(1):97–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    McCluggage WG, Buhidma M, Tang L et al (1996) Monoclonal antibody MIB1 in the assessment of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions. Int J Gynecol Pathol 15:131–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Mikami Y, Kiyokawa T, Sasajima Y et al (2009) Reappraisal of synchronous and multifocal mucinous lesions of the female genital tract: a close association with gastric metaplasia. Histopathol 54(2):184–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Miller CJ, McChesney M, Moore PF (1992) Langerhans cells, macrophages and lymphocyte subsets in the cervix and vagina of rhesus macaques. Lab Invest 67(5):628–634PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Norris HJ, Taylor HB (1966) Polyps of the vagina: a benigh lesion resembling sarcoma botryoides. Cancer 19:226Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Novotny DB, Maygarden SJ, Johnson DE et al (1992) Tubal metaplasia: a frequent potential pitfall in the cytologic diagnosis of endocervical glandular dysplasia on cervical smears. Acta Cytol 36(1):1–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Nucci MR, Clement PB, Young RH (1999) Lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia, not otherwise specified: a clinicopathologic analysis of thirteen cases of a distinctive pseudoneoplastic lesion and comparison with fourteen cases of adenoma malignum. Am J Surg Pathol 23(8):886–891PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Oliva E, Clement PB, Young RH (1995) Tubal and tubo-endometrioid metaplasia of the uterine cervix: unemphasized features that may cause problems in differential diagnosis: a report of 25 cases. Am J Clin Pathol 103(5):618–623PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Patel DS, Bhagavan BS (1985) Blue nevus of the uterine cervix. Hum Pathol 16:79–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Petitti DB, Yamamoto D, Morgenstern N (1983) Factors associated with actinomyces-like organisms on Papanicolaou smear in users of intrauterine contraceptive devices. Am J Obstet Gynecol 145(3):338–341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Proppe KH, Scully RE, Rosai J (1984) Postoperative spindle cell nodules of geniturinary tract resembling sarcomas: a report of eight cases. Am J Surg Pathol 8:101–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Raju GC (1994) Expression of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen in cervical neoplasia. Int J Gynecol Pathol 13(4):337–341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Rand RJ, Lowe JW (1998) Schistosomiasis of the uterine cervix. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 105(12):1329–1331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Riffenburgh RH, Olson PE, Johnstone PA (1997) Association of schistosomiasis with cervical cancer: detecting bias in clinical studies. East Afr Med J 74(1):14–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Roth E, Taylor HB (1966) Heterotopic cartilage in the uterus. Obstet Gynecol 27:838PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Saegusa M, Takano Y, Hashimura M et al (1995) The possible role of bcl-2 expression in the progression of tumors of the uterine cervix. Cancer 76(11):2297–2303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Schneider V (1981) Arias-stella reaction of the endocervix: frequency and location. Acta Cytol 25(3):224–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Segal GH, Hart WR (1990) Cystic endocervical tunnel clusters: a clinicopathologic study of 29 cases of so-called adenomatous hyperplasia. Am J Surg Pathol 14:895–903PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Seidman JD, Tavassoli FA (1995) Mesonephric hyperplasia of the uterine cervix: a clinicopathologic study of 51 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 14(4):293–299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Seltzer V, Sall S, Castadot MJ et al (1979) Glassy cell cervical carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 8:141–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Shih IM, Kurman RJ (1998) Ki-67 labeling index in the differential diagnosis of exaggerated placental site, placental site trophoblastic tumor, and choriocarcinoma: a double immunohistochemical staining technique using Ki-67 and Mel-CAM antibodies. Hum Pathol 29(1):27–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Shurbaji MS, Brooks SK, Thurmond TS (1993) Proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunoreactivity in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and benign cervical epithelium. Am J Clin Pathol 100(1):22–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Slavutin L (1979) Uterine gliosis and ossificiation. Am J Diag Gynecol Obstet 1:351Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Sneeden VD (1958) Mesonephric lesions of the cervix. A practical means of demonstration and a suggestion of incidence. Cancer 11:334–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Sobel JD (1997) Vaginitis. N Engl J Med 337(26):1896–1903PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Stout AP (1943) Hemangioendothelioma: a tumor of blood vessels featuring vascular endothelial cells. Ann Surg 118:445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Sugase M, Moriyama S, Matsukura T (1991) Human papillomavirus in exophytic condylomatous lesions on different female genital regions. J Med Virol 34(1):1–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Suh KS, Silverberg SG (1990) Tubal metaplasia of the uterine cervix. Int J Gynecol Pathol 9(2):122–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    ter Harmsel B, Kuijpers J, Smedts F et al (1997) Progressing imbalance between proliferation and apoptosis with increasing severity of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Int J Gynecol Pathol 16:205–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Weir MM, Bell DA, Young RH (1997) Transitional cell metaplasia of the uterine cervix and vagina: an underrecognized lesion that may be confused with high-grade dysplasia. A report of 59 cases [see comments]. Am J Surg Pathol 21(5):510–517PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Witkiewicz AK, Hecht JL, Cviko A et al (2005) Microglandular hyperplasia: a model for the de novo emergence and evolution of endocervical reserve cells. Hum Pathol 36(2):154–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Workowski KA, Berman SM (2006) Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2006. MMWR Recomm Rep; 55(RR-11):1–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Yilmaz AG, Chandler P, Hahm GK et al (1999) Melanosis of the uterine cervix: a report of two cases and discussion pigmented cervical lesions. Int J Gynecol Pathol 18:73–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Young RH, Clement PB (2000) Endocervicosis involving the uterine cervix: a report of four cases of a benign process that may be confused with deeply invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol 19(4):322–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Young RH, Scully RE (1989) Atypical forms of microglandular hyperplasia of the cervix simulating carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol 13:50–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Young RH, Harris NL, Scully RE (1985) Lymphoma-like lesions of the lower female genital tract: a report of 16 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 4(4):289–299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Young RH, Kurman RJ, Scully RE (1988) Proliferations and tumors of intermediate trophoblast of the placental site. Semin Diagn Pathol 5:223–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Zaino RJ (2000) Glandular lesions of the uterine cervix. Mod Pathol 13(3):261–274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas C. Wright
    • 1
  • Brigitte M. Ronnett
    • 2
  • Alex Ferenczy
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Pathology Columbia Presbyterian Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pathology, Division of Gynecologic PathologyJohns Hopkins University School of Medicine Weinberg Building 2242BaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Jewish General HospitalMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada

Personalised recommendations