Diseases of the Peritoneum


This chapter considers the wide range of nonneoplastic and neoplastic lesions that involve the peritoneum, and in some cases the retroperitoneal lymph nodes, of females. The first half of the chapter covers inflammatory lesions, tumor-like lesions (including mesothelial hyperplasia), mesothelial neoplasms, miscellaneous primary tumors, and metastatic tumors. The final half of the chapter is devoted to a large group of lesions that exhibit müllerian differentiation on microscopic examination and share a potential origin from the secondary müllerian system, the prototypical example of which is endometriosis.


Mesothelial Cell Malignant Mesothelioma Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor Endometriotic Lesion Pelvic Endometriosis 


  1. 1.
    Adams HW, Mainz DL (1977) Eosinophilic ascites. A case report and review of the literature. Digest Dis 22:40–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ahn GH, Scully RE (1991) Clear cell carcinoma of the inguinal region arising from endometriosis. Cancer (Phila) 67:116–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Albee RB Jr, Sinervo K, Fisher DT (2008) Laparoscopic excision of lesions suggestive of endometriosis or otherwise atypical in appearance: relationship between visual findings and final histologic diagnosis. J Minim Invasive Gynecol 15:32–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Al-Khawaja M, Tan PH, MacLennan GT et al (2008) Ureteral endometriosis: clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of 7 cases. Hum Pathol 39:954–959PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Altaras MM, Aviram R, Cohen I et al (1991) Primary peritoneal papillary serous adenocarcinoma: clinical and management aspects. Gynecol Oncol 40:230–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ashraf M, Boyd CB, Beresford WA (1984) Ectopic decidual reaction in para-aortic and pelvic lymph nodes in the presence of cervical squamous cell carcinoma during pregnancy. J Surg Oncol 26:6–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Aslani M, Ahn G, Scully RE (1988) Serous papillary cystadenoma of borderline malignancy of broad ligament. Int J Gynecol Pathol 7:131–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Aslani M, Scully RE (1989) Primary carcinoma of the broad ligament. Report of four cases and review of the literature. Cancer (Phila) 64:1540–1545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Attanoos R, Gibbs AR (1997) Pathology of malignant mesothelioma. Histopathology (Oxf) 30:403–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Attanoos RL, Griffin A, Gibbs AR (2003) The use of immunohistochemistry in distinguishing reactive from neoplastic mesothelium. A novel use for desmin and comparative evaluation with epithelial membrane antigen, p53, platelet-derived growth factor-receptor, P-glycoprotein and bcl-2. Histopathology 43:231–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Baker PM, Clement PB, Bell DA et al (1999) Superficial endometriosis of the uterine cervix: a report of 20 cases of a process that may be confused with endocervical glandular dysplasia or adenocarcinoma in situ. Int J Gynecol Pathol 18:198–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Baker PM, Clement PB, Young RH (2005) Malignant peritoneal mesotheliomas in women: A study of 75 cases with emphasis on their morphologic spectrum and differential diagnosis. Am J Clin Pathol 123:724–737PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Banu SK, Lee J, Speights VO Jr et al (2008) Cyclooxygenase-2 regulates survival, migration, and invasion of human endometriotic cells through multiple mechanisms. Endocrinology 149:1180–1189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Barnetson RJ, Burnett RA, Downie I et al (2006) Immunohistochemical analysis of peritoneal mesothelioma and primary and secondary serous carcinoma of the peritoneum. Antibodies to estrogen and progesterone receptors are useful. Am J Clin Pathol 125:67–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bayer AS, Blumenkrantz MJ, Montgomerie JZ et al (1976) Candida peritonitis. Report of 22 cases and review of the English literature. Am J Med 61:832–840PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bell DA, Scully RE (1990) Serous borderline tumors of the peritoneum. Am J Surg Pathol 14:230–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ben-Baruch G, Sivan E, Moran O et al (1996) Primary peritoneal serous papillary carcinoma: a study of 25 cases and comparison with stage III-IV ovarian papillary serous carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 60:393–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bergqvist A, Ljungberg O, Myhre E (1984) Human endometrium and endometriotic tissue obtained simultaneously: a comparative histological study. Int J Gynecol Pathol 3:135–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Biscotti CV, Hart WR (1992) Peritoneal serous micropapillomatosis of low malignant potential (serous borderline tumors of the peritoneum). A clinicopathologic study of 17 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 16:467–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bolen JW, Hammar SP, McNutt MA (1986) Reactive and neoplastic serosal tissue. A light microscopic, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study. Am J Surg Pathol 10:34–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Boyle DP, McCluggage WG (2009) Peritoneal stromal endometriosis: a detailed morphological analysis of a large series of cases of a common and under-recognized form of endometriosis. J Clin Pathol 62:530–533PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bransilver BR, Ferenczy A, Richart RM (1974) Brenner tumors and Walthard cell nests. Arch Pathol Lab Med 98:76–86Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Brunnemann RG, Ro JY, Ordonez NG et al (1999) Extrapleural solitary fibrous tumor: a clinicopathologic study of 24 cases. Mod Pathol 12:1034–1042PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bulun SE (2009) Mechanisms of disease: endometriosis. N Engl J Med 360:268–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bur ME, Greene GL, Press MF (1987) Estrogen receptor localization in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded endometrium and endometriotic tissues. Int J Gynecol Pathol 6:140–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Candiani GB, Vercellini P, Fedele L et al (1991) Inguinal endometriosis: pathogenetic and clinical implications. Obstet Gynecol 78:191–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Carr NJ, Turk EP (1992) The histological features of splenosis. Histopathology (Oxf) 21:549–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Carrick KS, Milvenan JS, Albores-Saavedra J (2003) Serous tumor of low malignant potential arising in inguinal endosalpingiosis. Int J Gynecol Pathol 22:412–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cartwright PS (1991) Peritoneal trophoblastic implants after surgical management of tubal pregnancy. J Reprod Med 36:523–524PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Casey MJ, Synder C, Bewtra C et al (2005) Intra-abdominal carcinomatosis after prophylactic oophorectomy in women of hereditary breast ovarian cancer syndrome kindreds associated witih BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Gynecol Oncol 97:457–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ceruto CA, Brun EA, Chang D et al (2006) Prognostic significance of histomorphologic parameters in diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma. Arch Pathol Lab Med 130:1653–1661Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chatman DL, Ward AB (1982) Endometriosis in adolescents. J Reprod Med 27:156–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chatman DL, Zbella EA (1987) Biopsy in laparoscopically diagnosed endometriosis. J Reprod Med 32:855–857PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chatterjee SK (1980) Scar endometriosis: a clinicopathologic study of 17 cases. Obstet Gynecol 56:81–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chopin N, Vieira M, Borghese B et al (2005) Operative management of deeply infiltrating endometriosis: results on pelvic pain symptoms according to a surgical classification. J Minim Invasive Gynecol 12:106–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Churg A, Cagle PT, Roggli VL (2006) Tumors of the serosal membranes. Atlas of tumor pathology, ser IV. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Clarke TJ, Simpson RHW (1990) Necrotizing granulomas of peritoneum following diathermy ablation of endometriosis. Histopathology (Oxf) 16:400–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Clement PB (1995) Reactive tumor-like lesions of the peritoneum (Editorial). Am J Clin Pathol 103:673–676PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Clement PB (2007) The pathology of endometriosis: a survey of the many faces of a common disease emphasizing diagnostic pitfalls and unusual and newly appreciated aspects. Adv Anat Pathol 14:241–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Clement PB, Granai CO, Young RH et al (1994) Endometriosis with myxoid change: a case simulating pseudomyxoma peritonei. Am J Surg Pathol 18:849–853PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Clement PB, Scully RE (1978) Extrauterine mesodermal (müllerian) adenosarcoma. A clinicopathologic analysis of five cases. Am J Clin Pathol 69:276–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Clement PB, Scully RE (1992) Endometrial stromal sarcomas of the uterus with extensive endometrioid glandular differentiation. A report of three cases that caused problems in differential diagnosis. Int J Gynecol Pathol 11:163–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Clement PB, Young RH (1992) Endocervicosis of the urinary bladder: a report of six cases of a benign müllerian lesion that may mimic adenocarcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol 16:533–542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Clement PB, Young RH (1993) Florid mesothelial hyperplasia associated with ovarian tumors: a possible source of error in tumor diagnosis and staging. Int J Gynecol Pathol 12:51–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Clement PB, Young RH (1999) Tumor-like manifestations of florid cystic endosalpingiosis: a report of four cases including the first reported cases of mural endosalpingiosis of the uterus. Am J Surg Pathol 23:166–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Clement PB, Young RH (2000) Two previously unemphasized features of endometriosis: micronodular stromal endometriosis and endometriosis with stromal elastosis. Int J Surg Pathol 8:223–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Clement PB, Young RH, Hanna W et al (1993) Sclerosing peritonitis associated with luteinized thecomas of the ovary: a clinicopathological analysis of six cases. Am J Surg Pathol 18:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Clement PB, Young RH, Oliva E et al (1996) Hyperplastic mesothelial cells within abdominal lymph nodes: a mimic of metastatic ovarian carcinoma and serous borderline tumor. A report of two cases associated with ovarian neoplasms. Mod Pathol 9:879–886PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Clement PB, Young RH, Scully RE (1988) Necrotic pseudoxanthomatous nodules of the ovary and peritoneum in endometriosis. Am J Surg Pathol 12:390–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Clement PB, Young RH, Scully RE (1989) Liesegang rings in endometriosis. A report of three cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 8:271–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Clement PB, Young RH, Scully RE (1990) Stromal endometriosis of the uterine cervix. A variant of endometriosis that may simulate a sarcoma. Am J Surg Pathol 14:449–455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Clement PB, Young RH, Scully RE (1996) Malignant mesotheliomas presenting as ovarian masses. Am J Surg Pathol 20:1067–1080PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Coffin CM, Hornick JL, Fletcher CD (2007) Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor: comparison of clinicopathologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical features including ALK expression in atypical and aggressive cases. Am J Surg Pathol 31:509–520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Comin CE, Saieva C, Messerini (2007) h-caldesmon, calretinin, estrogen receptor, and Ber-EP4: A useful combination of immunohistochemical markers for differentiating epithelioid peritoneal mesothelioma from serous papillary carcinoma of the ovary. Am J Surg Pathol 31:1139–1148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Copeland LJ, Silva EG, Gershenson DM et al (1988) The significance of müllerian inclusions found at second-look laparotomy in patients with epithelial ovarian neoplasms. Obstet Gynecol 71:763–770PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Cornillie FJ, Oosterlynck D, Lauweryns JM et al (1990) Deeply infiltrating pelvic endometriosis: histology and clinical significance. Fertil Steril 53:978–983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Cramer SF, Meyer JS, Kraner JF et al (1980) Metastasizing leiomyoma of the uterus. S-phase fraction, estrogen receptor, and ultrastructure. Cancer (Phila) 45:932–937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Cumiskey J, Whyte P, Kelehan P et al (2008) A detailed morphologic and immunohistochemical comparison of pre- and postmenopausal endometriosis. J Clin Pathol 61:455–459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Czernobilsky B, Silverstein A (1978) Salpingitis and ovarian endometriosis. Fertil Steril 30:45–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    David MP, Ben-Zwi D, Langer L (1981) Tubal intramural polyps and their relationship to infertility. Fertil Steril 35:526–531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Day DL, Sane S, Dehner LP (1986) Inflammatory pseudotumor of the mesentery and small intestine. Pediatr Radiol 16:210–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Daya D, McCaughey WTE (1990) Well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma of the peritoneum. A clinicopathologic study of 22 cases. Cancer (Phila) 65:292–296, 185–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Deger RB, LiVolsi VA, Noumoff JS (1995) Foreign body reaction (gossypiboma) masking as recurrent ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol 56:94–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    de Peralta MN, Delahoussaye PM, Tornos CS et al (1994) Benign retroperitoneal cysts of müllerian type: a clinicopathologic study of three cases and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol 13:273–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    D’Hooghe T, Bambra CS, Raeymaekers BM et al (1995) Intrapelvic injection of menstural endometrium causes endometriosis in baboons (Papio cynocephalus and Papio anubis). Am J Obstet Gynecol 173:125–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Doss BJ, Jacques SM, Qureshi F et al (1998) Extratubal secondary trophoblastic implants: clinicopathologic correlation and review of the literature. Hum Pathol 29:184–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Egger H, Weigmann P (1982) Clinical and surgical aspects of ovarian endometriotic cysts. Arch Gynecol 233:37–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Elmore LW, Sherman ME, Seidman JD et al (2000) p53 expression and mutational status of primary peritoneal micropapillary serous carcinoma (abstract). Mod Pathol 13:124AGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Eltabbakh GH, Werness BA, Piver S et al (1998) Prognostic factors in extraovarian primary peritoneal carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 71:230–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Emory TS, Monihan JM, Carr NJ et al (1997) Sclerosing mesenteritis, mesenteric panniculitis and mesenteric lipodystrophy: a single entity? Am J Surg Pathol 21:392–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Erzen M, Rakar S, Klancar B et al (2001) Endometriosis-assocaited ovarian carcinoma: An entity distinct from other ovarian carcinomas as suggested by a nested case-control study. Gynecol Oncol 83:100–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Euscher ED, Malpica A, Deavers MT et al (2005) Differential expression of WT-1 in serous carcinomas in the peritoneum with or without associated serous carcinoma in endometrial polyps. Am J Surg Pathol 29:1074–1078PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Evans H, Yates WA, Palmer WE et al (1990) Clear cell carcinoma of the sigmoid mesocolon: a tumor of the secondary müllerian system. Am J Obstet Gynecol 162:161–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Fedele L, Vercellini P, Arcaini L et al (1988) CA 125 in serum, peritoneal fluid, active lesions, and endometrium of patients with endometriosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 158:166–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Feldman AL, Libutti SK, Pingpank JF et al (2003) Analysis of factors associated with outcome in patients with malignant peritoneal mesothelioma undergoing surgical debulking and intraperitoneal chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 24:4560–4567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Finch A, Beiner M, Lubinski J et al (2006) Salpingo-oophorectomy and the risk of ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancers in women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. JAMA 296:185–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Flieder DB, Moran CA, Travis WD et al (1998) Pleuro-pulmonary endometriosis and pulmonary ectopic deciduosis: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 10 cases with emphasis on diagnostic pitfalls. Hum Pathol 29:1495–1503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Foo KT, Ng KC, Rauff A et al (1978) Unusual small intestinal obstruction in adolescent girls: the abdominal cocoon. Br J Surg 65:427–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Forouhar F (1982) Meconium peritonitis. Pathology, evolution, and diagnosis. Am J Clin Pathol 78:208–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Fredericks S, Russell P, Cooper M et al (2005) Smooth muscle in the female pelvic peritoneum: a clinicopathological analysis of 31 women. Pathology 37:14–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Fukunaga M (2000) Smooth muscle metaplasia in ovarian endometriosis. Histopathology 36:348–352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Fukunaga M, Naganuma H, Ushigome S et al (1996) Malignant solitary fibrous tumour of the peritoneum. Histopathology (Oxf) 28:463–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Fukunaga M, Nomura K, Ishikawa E et al (1997) Ovarian atypical endometriosis: Its close association with malignant epithelial tumors. Histopathology (Oxf) 30:249–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Fukunaga M, Ushigome S (1998) Epithelial metaplastic changes in ovarian endometriosis. Mod Pathol 11:784–788PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Gardner HL (1966) Cervical and vaginal endometriosis. Clin Obstet Gynecol 9:358–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    George E, Leyser S, Zimmer HL et al (1995) Vernix caseosa peritonitis: an infrequent complication of cesarean section with distinctive histopathologic features. Am J Clin Pathol 103:681–684PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Gilks CB, Bell DA, Scully RE (1990) Serous psammocarcinoma of the ovary and peritoneum. Int J Gynecol Pathol 9:110–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Goldblum J, Hart WR (1995) Localized and diffuse mesotheliomas of the genital tract and peritoneum in women. A clinicopathological study of nineteen true mesothelial neoplasms, other than adenomatoid tumors, multicystic mesotheliomas and localized fibrous tumors. Am J Surg Pathol 19:1124–1137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Gonzalez-Crussi F, deMello DE, Sotelo-Avila C (1983) Omental-mesenteric myxoid hamartomas. Am J Surg Pathol 7:567–578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Griffith LM, Carcangiu M (1991) Sex cord tumor with annular tubules associated with endometriosis of the fallopian tube. Am J Clin Pathol 96:259–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Guarch R, Puras A, Ceres R et al (2001) Ovarian endometriosis and clear cell carcinoma, leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata, and endometrial adenocarcinoma: an unusual, pathogenetically related association. Int J Gynecol Pathol 20:267–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Gupta S, Goldberg JM, Aziz N et al (2008) Pathogenic mechanisms in endometriosis-associated infertility. Fertil Steril 90:247–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Halme J, Hammond MG, Hulka JF et al (1984) Retrograde menstruation in healthy women and in patients with endometriosis. Obstet Gynecol 64:151–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hameed A, Jafri N, Copeland LJ et al (1996) Endometriosis with myxoid change simulating mucinous adenocarcinoma and pseudomyxoma peritonei. Gynecol Oncol 62:317–319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Harper GB Jr, Awbrey BJ, Thomas CG Jr et al (1986) Mesothelial cysts of the round ligament simulating inguinal hernia. Report of four cases and review of the literature. Am J Surg 151:515–517PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Heller DS, Gordon RE, Clement PB et al (1999) Presence of asbestos in peritoneal mesotheliomas in women. Int J Gynecol Cancer 9:452–455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Henderson DW, Shilkin KB, Whitaker D (1998) Reactive mesothelial hyperplasia vs. mesothelioma, including mesothelioma in situ. Am J Clin Pathol 110:397–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Hitti IF, Glasberg SS, Lubicz S (1990) Clear cell carcinoma arising in extraovarian endometriosis: report of three cases and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol 39:314–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Horn L-C, Bilek K (1995) Frequency and histogenesis of pelvic retroperitoneal lymph node inclusions of the female genital tract. An immunohistochemical study of 34 cases. Path Res Pract 191:991–996PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Horton JD, Dezee KJ, Ahnfeldt EP et al (2008) Abdominal wall endometriosis: a surgeon's perspective and review of 445 cases. Am J Surg 196:207–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Houston DE, Noller KL, Melton J et al (1987) Incidence of pelvic endometriosis in Rochester, Minnesota, 1970–1979. Am J Epidemiol 125:959–969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Houston DE, Noller KL, Melton J III et al (1988) The epidemiology of pelvic endometriosis. Clin Obstet Gynecol 31:787–800PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Hsu YK, Rosenshein NB, Parmley TH et al (1981) Leiomyomatosis in pelvic lymph nodes. Obstet Gynecol 57:91S–93SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Ishimaru T, Masuzaki H (1991) Peritoneal endometriosis: endometrial tissue implantation as its primary etiologic mechanism. Am J Obstet Gynecol 165:210–214Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Ismail SM (1991) Cone biopsy causes cervical endometriosis and tubo-endometrioid metaplasia. Histopathology (Oxf) 18:107–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Jaaback KS, Ludeman L, Clayton NL et al (2006) Primary peritoneal carcinoma in a UK cancer center: comparison with advanced ovarian carcinoma over a 5-year period. Int J Gynecol Cancer 16(suppl 1):123–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Jansen RPS, Russell P (1986) Nonpigmented endometriosis: clinical, laparoscopic, and pathologic definition. Am J Obstet Gynecol 155:1154–1159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Jaworski RC, Boadle R, Greg J et al (2001) Peritoneal “melanosis” associated with a ruptured ovarian dermoid cyst: report of a case with electron-probe energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Int J Gynecol Pathol 20:386–389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Kafiri G, Thomas DM, Shepherd NA et al (1992) p53 expression is common in malignant mesotheliomas. Histopathology (Oxf) 21:331–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Kane C, Drouin P (1985) Obstructive uropathy associated with endometriosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 151:207–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Kapoor OP, Nathwani BN, Joshi VR (1972) Amoebic peritonitis. A study of 73 cases. J Trop Med Hyg 75:11–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Karlan BY, Baldwin RL, Lopez-Luevanos E et al (1999) Peritoneal serous papillary carcinoma, a phenotypic variation of familial ovarian cancer: Implications for ovarian cancer screening. Am J Obstet Gynecol 180:917–928PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Kazakov DV, Ondic O, Zamecnik M et al (2007) Morphological variations of scar-related and spontaneous endometriosis of the skin and superficial soft tissue: a study of 71 cases with emphasis on atypical features and types of müllerian differentiations. J Am Acad Dermatol 57:134–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Kelly P, McCluggage WG, Gardiner KR et al (2008) Intestinal endometriosis morphologically mimicking colonic adenocarcinoma. Histopathology 52:510–514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Kempers RD, Dockerty MB, Hunt AB et al (1960) Significant postmenopausal endometriosis. Surg Gynecol Obstet 111:348–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kern SB (1991) Prevalence of psammoma bodies in Papanicolaou-stained cervicovaginal smears. Acta Cytol 35:81–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Kerner H, Gaton E, Czernobilsky B (1981) Unusual ovarian, tubal and pelvic mesothelial inclusions in patients with endometriosis. Histopathology (Oxf) 5:277–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Kerrigan SAJ, Turnnir RT, Clement PB et al (2002) Diffuse malignant epithelial mesotheliomas of the peritoneum in women: a clinicopathologic study of 25 cases. Cancer 94:378–385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Kershisnik MM, Ro JY, Cannon GH et al (1994) Histiocytic reaction in pelvic peritoneum associated with oxidized regenerated cellulose. Am J Clin Pathol 103:27–31Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Kheir SM, Mann WJ, Wilkerson JA (1981) Glandular inclusions in lymph nodes. The problem of extensive involvement and relationship to salpingitis. Am J Surg Pathol 5:353–359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Kim K, Scully RE (1990) Peritoneal keratin granulomas with carcinomas of endometrium and ovary and atypical polypoid adenomyoma of endometrium. A clinicopathological analysis of 22 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 14:925–932PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Koc S, Beydilli G, Tulunay G et al (2006) Peritoneal tuberculosis mimicking advanced ovarian cancer: a retrospective review of 22 cases. Gynecol Oncol 103:565–569PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Koninckx PR, Ide P, Vandenbroucke W et al (1980) New aspects of the pathophysiology of endometriosis and associated infertility. J Reprod Med 24:257–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Kuo T, Hsueh S (1984) Mucicarminophilic histiocytosis. A polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) storage disease simulating signet-ring cell carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol 8:419–428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    LaGrenade A, Silverberg SG (1988) Ovarian tumors associated with atypical endometriosis. Hum Pathol 19:1080–1084PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Lae ME, Roche PC, Jin L et al (2002) Desmoplastic small round cell tumor. A clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular study of 32 tumors. Am J Surg Pathol 26:823–835PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Lamb K, Hoffmann RG, Nichols TR (1986) Family trait analysis: a case-control study of 43 women with endometriosis and their best friends. Am J Obstet Gynecol 154:596–601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Lauchlan SC (1972) The secondary müllerian system. Obstet Gynecol Surv 27:133–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Lee I, Ching K, Pang M, Ho T (1996) Two cases of primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 63:145–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Lee KR, Verma U, Belinson J (1991) Primary clear cell carcinoma of the peritoneum. Gynecol Oncol 41:259–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Lessey BA, Metzger DA, Haney AF et al (1989) Immunohistochemical analysis of estrogen and progesterone receptors in endometriosis: comparison with normal endometrium during the menstrual cycle and the effect of medical therapy. Fertil Steril 51:409–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Leyendecker G (2002) Endometriosis results from the dislocation of basalis endometrium. Hum Reprod 17:2736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Lim S, Kim JY, Park K et al (2003) Mullerianosis of the mesosalpinx: a case report. Int J Gynecol Pathol 22:209–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Lin BT-Y, Colby T, Gown AM et al (1996) Malignant vascular tumors of the serous membranes mimicking mesothelioma. A report of 14 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 20:1431–1439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Lombardo L, Mateos JH, Barroeta FF (1968) Subarachnoid hemorrhage due to endometriosis of the spinal canal. Neurology 18:423–426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Mangano WE, Cagle PT, Churg A et al (1998) The diagnosis of desmoplastic malignant mesothelioma and its distinction from fibrous pleurisy. A histologic and immunohistochemical analysis of 31 cases including p53 immunostaining. Am J Clin Pathol 110:191–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Martin DC, Hubert GD, Vander Zwaag R et al (1989) Laparoscopic appearances of peritoneal endometriosis. Fertil Steril 51:63–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Martin JD Jr, Hauck AE (1985) Endometriosis in the male. Am Surg 51:426–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Martinka M, Allaire C, Clement PB (1999) Endocervicosis presenting as a painful vaginal mass: a case report. Int J Gynecol Pathol 18:274–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Matalliotakis TM, Cakmak H, Fragouli YG et al (2008) Epidemiological characteristics in women with and without endometriosis in the Yale series. Arch Gynecol Obstet 277:389–393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    McCaughey WTE, Kirk ME, Lester W et al (1984) Peritoneal epithelial lesions associated with proliferative serous tumours of the ovary. Histopathology (Oxf) 8:195–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    McCluggage WG, Bryson C, Lamki H et al (2000) Benign, borderline, and malignant endometrioid neoplasia arising in endometriosis in association with tamoxifen therapy. Int J Gynecol Pathol 19:276–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    McCluggage WG, Oliva E, Herrington CS et al (2003) CD10 and calretinin staining of endocervical glandular lesions, endocervical stroma and endometrioid adenocarcinomas of the uterine corpus: CD10 positivity is characteristic of, but not specific for, mesonephric lesions and is not specific for endometrial stroma. Histopathology 43:144–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    McCoubrey A, Houghton O, McCallion K et al (2005) Serous adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid mesentery arising in cystic endosalpingiosis. J Clin Pathol 58:1221–1223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    McFadden DE, Clement PB (1986) Peritoneal inclusion cysts with mural mesothelial proliferation. A clinicopathological analysis of six cases. Am J Surg Pathol 10:844–854PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Merchant SH, Haghir S, Gordon GB (2000) Granulomatous peritonitis after laparoscopic cholecystectomy mimicking pelvic endometriosis. Obstet Gynecol 96:830–831PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Metzger DA, Haney AF (1988) Endometriosis: etiology and pathophysiology of infertility. Clin Obstet Gynecol 31:801–812PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Metzger DA, Lessey BA, Soper JT et al (1991) Hormone-resistant endometriosis following total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy: correlation with histology and steroid receptor content. Obstet Gynecol 78:946–950PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Metzger DA, Olive DL, Haney AF (1988) Limited hormonal responsiveness of ectopic endometrium: histologic correlation with intrauterine endometrium. Hum Pathol 19:1417–1424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Michael H, Sutton G, Roth LM (1987) Ovarian carcinoma with extracellular mucin production: reassessment of “pseudomyxoma ovarii et peritonei”. Int J Gynecol Pathol 6:298–312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Mikami M, Tei C, Takehara K et al (2003) Retroperitoneal primary mucinous adenocarcinoma with a mural nodule of anaplastic tumor: a case report and literature review. Int J Gynecol Pathol 22:205–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Mills SE (1983) Decidua and squamous metaplasia in abdominopelvic lymph nodes. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2:209–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Minaglia S, Mishell DR Jr, Ballard CA (2007) Incisional endometriomas after Cesarean section: a case series. J Reprod Med 52:630–634PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Moloshok AA, Ivanko AI (1984) Endometriosis of the breast (an observation). Vopr Onkol 30:88–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Mostoufizadeh M, Scully RE (1980) Malignant tumors arising in endometriosis. Clin Obstet Gynecol 23:951–963PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Mourra N, Nion I, Parc R et al (2004) Squamous metaplasia of the peritoneum: a potential diagnostic pitfall. Histopathology 44:621–622PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Muneyyirci-Delale O, Neil G, Serur E et al (1998) Endometriosis with massive ascites. Obstet Gynecol 69:42–46Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Naresh KN, Ahuja VK, Rao CR et al (1991) Squamous cell carcinoma arising in endometriosis of the ovary. J Clin Pathol 44:958–959PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Nascimento AF, Ruiz R, Hornick JL et al (2002) Calcifying fibrous ‘pseudotumor’: clinicopathologic study of 15 cases and analysis of its relationship to inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. Int J Surg Pathol 10:189–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Nazeer T, Ro JY, Tornos C et al (1996) Endocervical type glands in urinary bladder: a clinicopathologic study of six cases. Hum Pathol 27:816–820PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Nisolle-Pochet M, Casanas-Roux F, Donnez J (1988) Histologic study of ovarian endometriosis after hormonal therapy. Fertil Steril 49:423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Nissim F, Ashkenazy M, Borenstein R et al (1981) Tuberculoid cornstarch granulomas with caseous necrosis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 105:86–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Nonaka D, Kasamura S, Baratti D et al (2005) Diffuse malignant mesothelioma of the peritoneum. A clinicopathologic study of 35 patients treated locoregionally at a single institution. Cancer 104:2181–2188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Olive DL, Henderson DY (1987) Endometriosis and müllerian anomalies. Obstet Gynecol 69:412–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Ordi J, de Alava E, Torné A et al (1998) Intraabdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor with EWS/ERG fusion transcript. Am J Surg Pathol 22:1026–1032PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Ordonez NG (1998) Desmoplastic small round cell tumor. I: A histopathologic study of 39 cases with emphasis on unusual histologic patterns. Am J Surg Pathol 22:1303–1313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Ordonez NG (1998) Desmoplastic small round cell tumor. II: An ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study with emphasis on new histochemical markers. Am J Surg Pathol 22:1303–1313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Ordóñez NG (2005) Mesothelioma with clear cell features: an ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study of 20 cases. Hum Pathol 36:465–473PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Ordóñez NG (2005) Value of estrogen and progesterone receptor immunostaining in distinguishing between peritoneal mesotheliomas and serous carcinomas. Hum Pathol 36:1163–1167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Ordóñez NG (2006) Value of immunohistochemistry in distinguishing peritoneal mesothelioma from serous carcinoma of the ovary and peritoneum. A review and update. Adv Anat Pathol 13:16–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Orezzoli JP, Russell AH, Oliva E et al (2008) Prognostic implication of endometriosis in clear cell carcinoma of the ovary. Gynecol Oncol 110:336–344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    OuYang Z, Hirota Y, Osuga Y et al (2008) Interleukin-4 stimulates proliferation of endometriotic stromal cells. Am J Pathol 173:463–469PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Padmanabhan V, Mount SL, Eltabbakh GH (2003) Peritoneal atypical mesothelial proliferation with progression to invasive mesothelioma: a case report and review of the literature. Pathology 35:260–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Pai SA, Desai SB, Borges AM (1998) Uterus-like masses of the ovary associated with breast cancer and raised serum CA 125. Am J Surg Pathol 22:333–337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Park SA, Giannattasio C, Tancer ML (1981) Foreign body reaction to the intraperitoneal use of avitene. Obstet Gynecol 58:664–668PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Parker RL, Dadmanesh F, Young RH et al (2004) Polypoid endometriosis: a clinicopathologic analysis of 24 cases and a review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol 28:285–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Paull T, Tedeschi LG (1972) Perineal endometriosis at the site of episiotomy scar. Obstet Gynecol 40:28–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Pearl ML, Valea F, Chumas J et al (1996) Primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of low malignant potential: a case report and literature review. Gynecol Oncol 61:150–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Peress MR, Sosnowski JR, Mathur RS et al (1982) Pelvic endometriosis and Turner’s syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 144:474–476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Perrotta PL, Ginsburg FW, Siderides CI et al (1998) Liesegang rings and endometriosis. Int J Gynecol Pathol 17:358–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Peterson VC, Underwood JCE, Wells M et al (2002) Primary endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the large intestine arising in colorectal endometriosis. Histopathology 40:171–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Pettinato G, Manivel JC, De Rosa N et al (1990) Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (plasma cell granuloma). Clinicopathologic study of 20 cases with immunohistochemical and ultrastructural observations. Am J Clin Pathol 94:538–546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Possover M, Chiantera V (2007) Isolated infiltrative endometriosis of the sciatic nerve: a report of three patients. Fertil Steril 87(417):e17–e19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Prade M, Spatz A, Bentley R et al (1995) Borderline and malignant serous tumor arising in pelvic lymph nodes: evidence of origin in benign glandular inclusions. Int J Gynecol Pathol 14:87–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Prefumo F, Venturini PL, Fulcheri E (2002) Analysis of p53 and c-erb-2 expression in ovarian endometrioid carcinomas arising in endometriosis. Int J Gynecol Pathol 22:83–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Prowse AH, Manek S, Varma S et al (2006) Molecular genetic evidence that endometriosis is a precursor of ovarian cancer. Int J Cancer 119:556–562PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Prystowsky JB, Stryker SJ, Ujiki GT et al (1988) Gastrointestinal endometriosis. Incidence and indications for resection. Arch Surg 123:855–858PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Pueblitz-Peredo S, Luevano-Flores E, Rincon-Taracena R et al (1985) Uteruslike mass of the ovary: endomyometriosis or congenital malformation? A case with a discussion of histogenesis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 109:361–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Punnonen R, Klemi PJ, Nikkanen V (1980) Postmenopausal endometriosis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 11:195–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Quagliarello J, Coppa G, Bigelow B (1985) Isolated endometriosis in an inguinal hernia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 152:688–689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Rahilly MA, Al-Nafusi A (1991) Uterus-like mass of the ovary associated with endometrioid carcinoma. Histopathology (Oxf) 18:549–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Redwine DB (1987) The distribution of endometriosis in the pelvis by age groups and fertility. Fertil Steril 47:173–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Redwine DB (1989) Peritoneal pockets and endometriosis. Confirmation of an important relationship, with further observations. J Reprod Med 34:270–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Reich H, De Caprio J, McGlynn F et al (1989) Peritoneal trophoblastic tissue implants after laparoscopic treatment of tubal ectopic pregnancy. Fertil Steril 52:337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Rock JA, Parmley TH, King TM et al (1981) Endometriosis and the development of tuboperitoneal fistulas after tubal ligation. Fertil Steril 35:16–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Rosai J, Dehner LP (1975) Nodular mesothelial hyperplasia in hernia sacs. A benign reactive condition stimulating a neoplastic process. Cancer (Phila) 35:165–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Ross MJ, Welch WR, Scully RE (1989) Multilocular peritoneal inclusion cysts (so-called cystic mesotheliomas). Cancer (Phila) 64:1336–1346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Roth LM (1973) Endometriosis with perineural involvement. Am J Clin Pathol 59:807–809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Ruffolo R, Suster S (1993) Diffuse histiocytic proliferation mimicking mesothelial hyperplasia in endocervicosis of the female pelvic peritoneum. Int J Surg Pathol 1:101–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Rutgers JL, Scully RE (1988) Ovarian müllerian mucinous papillary cystadenomas of borderline malignancy. A clinicopathological analysis. Cancer (Phila) 61:340–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Rutgers JL, Scully RE (1988) Ovarian mixed-epithelial papillary cystadenomas of borderline malignancy of mullerian type. A clinicopathological analysis. Cancer (Phila) 61:546–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Rutgers JL, Young RH, Scully RE (1987) Ovarian yolk sac tumor arising from an endometrioid carcinoma. Hum Pathol 18:1296–1299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Sainz de la Cuesta R, Eichhorn JH, Rice LW et al (1996) Histologic transformation of benign endometriosis to early epithelial ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol 60:238–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Sainz de al Cuesta R, Izquierdo M, Cañamero M et al (2004) Increased prevalence of p53 overexpression from typical endomteriosis to atypical endometriosis and ovarian cancer associated with endometriosis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 113:87–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Sampson JA (1927) Peritoneal endometriosis due to the menstrual dissemination of endometrial tissue into the peritoneal cavity. Am J Obstet Gynecol 14:422–469Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Sasson IE, Taylor HS (2008) Stem cells and the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1127:106–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Sato N, Tsunoda H, Nishida M et al (2000) Loss of heterozygosity on 10q.23.3 and mutation of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN in benign endometrial cysts of the ovary: possible sequence progression from benign endometrial cyst to endometrioid carcinoma and clear cell carcinoma of the ovary. Cancer Res 60:7052–7056PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Sawh RN, Malpica A, Deavers MT et al (2003) Benign cystic mesothelioma of the peritoneum: a clinicopathologic study of 17 cases and immunohistochemical analysis of estrogen and progesterone receptor status. Hum Pathol 34:369–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Schlesinger C, Silverberg SG (1999) Tamoxifen-associated polyps (basalomas) arising in multiple endometriotic foci: a case report and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol 73:305–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Schmidt CL, Demopoulos RI, Weiss G (1981) Infected endometriotic cysts: clinical characterization and pathogenesis. Fertil Steril 36:27–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Scully RE (1981) Smooth-muscle differentiation in genital tract disorders (Editorial). Arch Pathol Lab Med 105:505–507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Seidman JD (1996) Prognostic importance of hyperplasia and atypia in endometriosis. Int J Gynecol Pathol 15:1–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Seidman JD, Elsayed AM, Sobin LH et al (1993) Association of mucinous tumors of the ovary and appendix. A clinicopathologic study of 25 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 17:22–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Shia J, Erlandson R, Klimstra DS (2002) Deciduoid mesothelioma: a report of 5 cases and literature review. Ultrastruct Pathol 26:355–363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Shiraki M, Otis CN, Powell JL (1991) Endometrial stromal sarcoma arising from ovarian and extraovarian endometriosis: report of two cases and review of the literature. Surg Pathol 4:333–343Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Sidaway MK, Silverberg SG (1987) Endosalpingiosis in female peritoneal washings: a diagnostic pitfall. Int J Gynecol Pathol 6:340–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Sigel JE, Smith TA, Reith JD et al (2001) Immunohistochemical analysis of anaplastic lymphoma kinase expression in deep soft tissue calcifying fibrous pseudotumor: evidence of a late sclerosing stage of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor? Ann Diagn Pathol 5:10–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Simpson JL, Elias S, Malinak LR et al (1980) Heritable aspects of endometriosis. I. Genetic studies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 137:327–331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Slavin RE, Krum R, Van Dinh T (2000) Endometriosis-associated intestinal tumors: a clinical and pathological study of 6 cases with a review of the literature. Hum Pathol 31:456–463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Sohar E, Gafni J, Pras M et al (1967) Familial Mediterranean fever. A survey of 470 cases and review of the literature. Am J Med 43:227–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Staats PN, Clement PB, Young RH (2007) Primary endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the vagina: a clinicopathologic study of 18 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 31:1490–1501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Staats PN, McCluggage WG, Clement PB et al (2008) Luteinized thecomas (thecomatosis) of the type typically associated with sclerosing peritonitis: a clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical analysis of 27 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 32:1273–1290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Stanley KE, Utz DC, Dockerty MB (1965) Clinically significant endometriosis of the urinary tract. Surg Gynecol Obstet 120:491–498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Steck WD, Helwig EB (1966) Cutaneous endometriosis. Clin Obstet Gynecol 9:373–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Steele RW, Dmowski WP, Marmer DJ (1984) Immunologic aspects of human endometriosis. Am J Reprod Immunol 6:33–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Stripling MC, Martin DC, Chatman DL et al (1988) Subtle appearance of pelvic endometriosis. Fertil Steril 49:427–431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Sumathi VP, McCluggage WG (2002) CD10 is useful in demonstrating endometrial stroma at ectopic sites and confirming a diagnosis of endometriosis. J Clin Pathol 55:391–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Sun CJ, Toker C, Masi JD et al (1979) Primary low grade adenocarcinoma occurring in the inguinal region. Cancer (Phila) 44:340–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Sussman J, Rosai J (1990) Lymph node metastasis as the initial manifestation of malignant mesothelioma. Report of six cases. Am J Surg Pathol 14:818–828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Sznurkowski JJ, Emerich J (2008) Endometriomas are more frequent on the left side. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 87:104–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Szyfelbein WM, Baker PM, Bell DA (2004) Superficial endometriosis of the cervix: a source of abnormal glandular cells on cervicovaginal smears. Diagn Cytopathol 30:88–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Taheri ZM, Mehrafza M, Mohammadi F et al (2008) The diagnostic value of Ki-67 and repp 86 in distinguishing between benign and malignant mesothelial proliferations. Arch Pathol Lab Med 132:694–697PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Thatcher SS, Grainger DA, True LD et al (1989) Pelvic trophoblastic implants after laparoscopic removal of a tubal pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 74:514–515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Thibodeau LL, Prioleau GR, Manuelidis EE et al (1987) Cerebral endometriosis. J Neurosurg 66:609–610PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Toki T, Fujii S, Silverberg SG (1996) A clinicopathologic study of the association of endometriosis and carcinoma of the ovary using a scoring system. Int J Gynecol Cancer 6:68–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Truong LD, Maccato ML, Awalt H et al (1990) Serous surface carcinoma of the peritoneum: a clinicopathologic study of 22 cases. Hum Pathol 21:99–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Ulbright TM, Morley DJ, Roth LM et al (1983) Papillary serous carcinoma of the retroperitoneum. Am J Clin Pathol 79:633–637PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Vadlamudi G, Graebe R, Khoo M et al (1997) Gallstones implanting in the ovary. A complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Arch Pathol Lab Med 121:155–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Vuong PN, Guyot H, Moulin G et al (1990) Pseudotumoral organization of a twisted epiploic fringe or ‘hard-boiled egg’ in the peritoneal cavity. Arch Pathol Lab Med 114:531–533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Walter AJ, Hentz JG, Magtibay PM et al (2001) Endometriosis: correlation between histologic and visual findings at laparoscopy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 184:1407–1413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Wanless IR, Bernier V (1983) Fibrous thickening of the splenic capsule. Arch Pathol Lab Med 107:595–599PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Weinstein MP, Iannini PB, Stratton CW et al (1978) Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. A review of 28 cases with emphasis on improved survival and factors influencing prognosis. Am J Med 64:592–598PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Weir M, Bell DA, Young RH (1998) Grade 1 peritoneal serous carcinomas. A report of 14 cases and comparison with 7 peritoneal serous psammocarcinomas and 19 peritoneal serous borderline tumors. Am J Surg Pathol 22:849–862PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    White J, Chan Y-F (1994) Lipofuscinosis peritonei associated with pregancy-related ectopic decidua. Histopathology (Oxf) 25:83–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Williams TJ, Pratt JH (1977) Endometriosis in 1,000 consecutive celiotomies: incidence and management. Am J Obstet Gynecol 129:245–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Wu DC, Hirschowit S, Natarajan S (2005) Ectopic decidua of pelvic lymph nodes: a potential diagnostic pitfall. Arch Pathol Lab Med 129:e117–e120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Wu Y, Strawn E, Basir Z et al (2006) Genomic alterations in ectopic and eutopic endometria of women with endometriosis. Gynecol Obstet Invest 62:148–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Yamamoto S, Tsuda H, Takano M et al (2008) Clear-cell adenofibroma can be a clonal precursor for clear-cell adenocarcinoma of the ovary: a possible alternative ovarian clear-cell carcinogenic pathway. J Pathol 216(1):103–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Yantiss RK, Clement PB, Young RH (2000) Neoplastic and pre-neoplastic changes in gastrointestinal endometriosis: A study of 17 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 24:513–524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Yantiss RK, Clement PB, Young RH (2001) Endometriosis of the intestinal tract. A study of 44 cases of a disease that may cause diverse challenges in clinical and pathological evaluation. Am J Surg Pathol 25:445–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Yantiss RK, Nielsen GP, Lauwers GY et al (2003) Reactive nodular fibrous pseudotumor of the gastrointestinal tract and mesentery. Am J Surg Pathol 27:532–540PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Young RH, Clement PB (1996) Müllerianosis of the urinary bladder. Mod Pathol 9:731–737PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Young RH, Clement PB (2000) Endocervicosis involving the uterine cervix: a report of four cases of a benign process that may be confused with deeply invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol 19:322–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Young RH, Clement PB, McCaughey WTE (1990) Solitary fibrous tumors (“fibrous mesotheliomas”) of the peritoneum: a report of three cases. Arch Pathol Lab Med 114:493–495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Young RH, Eichhorn JH, Dickersin GR et al (1992) Ovarian involvement by the intra-abdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor with divergent differentiation: a report of three cases. Hum Pathol 23:454–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Young RH, Prat J, Scully RE (1984) Endometrioid stromal sarcomas of the ovary. A clinicopathologic analysis of 23 cases. Cancer (Phila) 53:1143–1155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Young RH, Scully RE (1986) Testicular and paratesticular tumors and tumor-like lesions of ovarian common epithelial and müllerian types. A report of four cases and review of the literature. Am J Clin Pathol 86:146–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Zhang PJ, Goldblum JR, Pawel BR et al (2003) Immunophenotype of desmoplastic small round cell tumors as detected in cases with EWS/WT1 gene fusion product. Mod Pathol 16:229–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Zinsser KR, Wheeler JE (1982) Endosalpingiosis in the omentum. A study of autopsy and surgical material. Am J Surg Pathol 6:109–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Laboratory Medicine, Pathology, and Medical GeneticsRoyal Jubilee HospitalVictoriaCanada
  2. 2.Department of PathologyVancouver Hospital and Health Sciences CenterVancouverCanada

Personalised recommendations