Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology

2014 Edition
| Editors: Claire Smith

Freshwater Archaeology

  • Bradley A. Rodgers
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0465-2_584

Introduction and Definition

Freshwater archaeology can be defined as archaeological research that takes place in or near streams, rivers, lakes, ponds, oxbow lakes, or inundated natural and man-made features such as springs, cenotes, or flooded mines and quarries. In this venue, freshwater archaeology will not include features located in oceanic sounds, bays, gulfs, and some seas that contain brackish (mixture of fresh and salt) water. For archaeological purposes, therefore, freshwater can be defined by water at which point the average salt content, or salinity, is or remains lower than .5 ppt (parts per thousand). Typical oceanic salt content averages 35 ppt and importantly for archaeologists, 12 ppt is the point at which typical oceanic fouling assemblages such as corals, coralline algae, shellfish, and tubeworms as well as wood borers such as shipworms, piddocks, and gribbles can no longer live.

Freshwater systems typically demonstrate high levels of artifact preservation as well as...

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Further Reading

  1. Adams, R.M.1980.Survey of the steamboat Black Cloud. Austin: Texas A&M University.Google Scholar
  2. Avery, T. 1974.The mystery ship from 19 fathoms: the discovery and resurrection of the Alvin Clark, part of a missing chapter in Great Lakes history. Michigan: Avery Color Studios.Google Scholar
  3. Barton, D.F.1995. The Dyreson fish weir on the Yahara river. Yahara Watershed Journal 1: 14-6.Google Scholar
  4. Bazzill, D.M. 2007.The missing link between sail and steam: steambarges and the Joys of Door county, Wisconsin (Research Report 19). Columbus: PAST Foundation.Google Scholar
  5. Brehm, V. (ed.) 2001. A fully accredited ocean: essays on the Great Lakes. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  6. Carrell, T. 1985. Submerged cultural resources site report: Noquebay. Sante Fe: National Park Service.Google Scholar
  7. Cooper, D.J.1988.1986 -1987 archaeological survey of the Schooner Fleetwing site, 47 DR168, Garrett Bay, Wisconsin (ECU Research Report 6). Greenville: East Carolina University.Google Scholar
  8. -1989. Survey of submerged cultural resources in northern Door County: 1988 field season report. Wisconsin: State Historical Society of Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  9. - 1991. By fire, storm, and ice: underwater archaeological investigations in the Apostle Islands. Wisconsin: State Historical Society of Wisconsin.Google Scholar
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  22. Pollack, J.C. 2008. A catalogue of historic sternwheeler wrecks and Hulks in the Yukon. Institute of Nautical Archaeology File Report INA-124-2008/1.Google Scholar
  23. Rodgers, B.A. 1995. The 1995 pre-disturbance wreck site investigation at Claflin Point, Little Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin (ECU Research Report 10). Greenville: East Carolina University.Google Scholar
  24. - 1996. Guardian of the great lakes: the U.S. paddle frigate Michigan. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  25. Rodgers, B.A. & R.T. Green. 2003. Of limestone and labor shipwrecks of the stone trade: the 1999 Bullhead Point stone barge investigations Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin; phase II- pre-disturbance underwater archaeological site report (ECU Research Report 11). Greenville: East Carolina University.Google Scholar
  26. Rodgers, B.A. & N. Richards. 2006. The Castle Island ship’s graveyard: the history and archaeology of eleven wrecked and abandoned watercraft; phase II-pre-disturbance underwater archaeological site report (ECU Research Report 14). Greenville: East Carolina University.Google Scholar
  27. Rodgers, B.A., J.D. Moore III, A. Corbin, J. D. Piero & A. Pietruszka. 2006. From quarry to quay: shipwrecks of McCracken’s Cove; the 2001-2002 Sturgeon Bay wreck and wharf investigation at the Birmingham site (ECU Research Report 17). Greenville: East Carolina University.Google Scholar
  28. Rodgers, B., T. R. Hicks & E. Wyllie. n.d. Enigma of the Old Sparta vessel: the phase II pre-disturbance archaeological survey of a tar river steamboat. Greenville: East Carolina University Program in Maritime Studies.Google Scholar
  29. Thompson, M.L. 2000. Graveyard of the lakes. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Watts Jr., G.P & W.K Hall. 1986. An investigation of Blossom’s Ferry on the Northeast Cape Fear River (ECU Research Report 1). Greenville: East Carolina University.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Program in Maritime StudiesEast Carolina UniversityGreenvilleUSA