United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and Underwater Cultural Heritage
In 1973, member states of the United Nations met in New York for the Third Conference on the Law of the Sea. From 1973 until 1982, 160 State Parties met to discuss the legislative boundaries of the sea, addressing not just the legal but also the biological, economic, technical, and political aspects across the open bodies of water. As a result of these discussions, on December 10, 1982, the United Nations adopted the Convention on the Law of the Sea. The Convention came into force on November 16, 1994, after the 60th State Party signed onto the treaty. By October 2012, 165 State Parties had joined the Convention. This is the third Law of the Sea Convention adopted by the United Nations, and the only Law of the Sea to identify cultural heritage located underwater.
The first Law of the Sea (1958) consisted of four independent conventions and an optional protocol. The text introduced provisional maritime zones, but they remained ambiguous in regard to the defined breadth of...
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