Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology

2014 Edition
| Editors: Claire Smith

Urartu, Archaeology of

  • Juan Christian Rodriguez Bobadilla
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0465-2_2345

Introduction

Urartu was an Iron Age kingdom that flourished between the ninth and the seventh centuries BCE in the northern regions of the Ancient Near East, stretching across portions of the modern nations of Turkey, Armenia, Iran, and a small part of northeastern Iraq (Dan 2010).

Celebrated as one of Assyria’s uttermost rivals (and for a time the most powerful state in the Ancient Near East), this political entity has been the object of numerous studies in the past 15 decades (Piotrovsky 1969; Barnett 1982; Lindsay & Smith 2006). Over this time, the Urartian material culture assemblage has proven to be very characteristic and distinguishable within the archaeological record in the Ancient Near East (Zimansky 1995a). This entry provides a general historical overview of the Kingdom of Urartu while focusing on the development of Urartian studies and Urartian archaeology as well as on Urartian material cultural assemblage.

Definition

Urartu, Bianili, and Nairi

The name Urartu (which is...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Azarpay, G. 1968. Urartian art and artifacts: a chronological study. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  2. Barnett, R.D. 1963. The Urartian cementery at Igdyr. Anatolian Studies 13: 153-198.Google Scholar
  3. - 1982. Urartu, in J. Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, N. G. L. Hammond & E. Sollberger (ed.) Cambridge ancient history III/1: the prehistory of the Balkans; the Middle East and the Aegean World, tenth to eighth centuries: 314-371. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Burney, C. A. 1957. Urartian fortresses and towns in the Van region. Anatolian Studies 7: 37-53.Google Scholar
  5. Burney, C. 1972. Urartian irrigation works. Anatolian Studies 22: 179-186.Google Scholar
  6. Çilingiroǧlu, A. & M. Salvini (ed.) 2001. The historical background of Ayanis. Ayanis I. Ten years’ excavations at Rusahinili Eiduru-kai: 15-24. Roma: Istituto Per Gli Studi Micenei Ed Egeo-Anatolici.Google Scholar
  7. Dan, R. 2010. The archaeological and geographical landscape of Urartu, in P. Matthiae, F. Pinnock, L. Nigro & N. Marchetti (ed.) Proceedings of the 6th international congress on the archaeology of the ancient Near East, Volume 3: Islamic session: 331-340. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.Google Scholar
  8. Garbrecht, G. 1980. The water supply system at Tuspa (Urartu). World Archaeology 11(3): 306-312.Google Scholar
  9. Kleiss, W. 1980. Bastam, an Urartian citadel complex of the seventh century B. C. American Journal of Archaeology 84(3): 299-304.Google Scholar
  10. Kroll, S. 1976. Keramik urartäischer Festungen in Iran. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag.Google Scholar
  11. - 1984. Urartus Untergang in anderer Sicht. Istanbuler Mitteilungen 34: 151-170.Google Scholar
  12. Lindsay, I. & A.T. Smith. 2006. A history of archaeology in the Republic of Armenia. Journal of Field Archaeology 31: 165-184.Google Scholar
  13. Merhav, R. (ed.) 1991. Urartu a metalworking center in the first millennium BCE. Jerusalem: The Israel Museum.Google Scholar
  14. Muscarela, O. W. 2006. Urartian metal artifacts: an archaeological review. Ancient Civilizations 1-2: 147-177.Google Scholar
  15. Piotrovsky, B. B. 1969. Urartu. Translated by J. Hogarth. New York: Cowles Book Co., Inc.Google Scholar
  16. Radner, K. 2011. Assyrians and Urartians, in S.R. Steadman & G. McMahon (ed.) The Oxford handbook of ancient Anatolia: 734-745. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Smith, A. T. 1999. The making of an Urartian landscape in southern Transcaucasia: a study of political architectonics. American Journal of Archaeology 103(1): 45-71.Google Scholar
  18. Stone, E.C. & P. Zymansky. 2001. Survey and soundings in the outer town of Ayanis 1996-1998, in A. Çilingiroǧlu & M. Salvini (ed.) Ayanis I. Ten years’ excavations at Rusahinili Eiduru-kai: 355-375. Roma: Istituto Per Gli Studi Micenei Ed Egeo-Anatolici.Google Scholar
  19. Tanyeri-Erdemir, T. 2006. Innovation, change, continuity: considering the agency of Rusa II in the production of the imperial art and architecture of Urartu in the 7th century B.C., in D.L. Peterson, L.M. Popova & A.T. Smith (ed.) Beyond the steppe and the sown: 264-281. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  20. Wartke, R.-B. 1993. Urartu: Das Reich am Ararat. Mainz: Philipp von Zabern.Google Scholar
  21. Zimansky, P. 1995a. Urartian material culture as state assemblage: an anomaly in the archaeology of empire. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 299/300: 103-115.Google Scholar
  22. - 1995b. An Urartian ozymandias. Biblical Archaeologist 58(2): 94-100.Google Scholar
  23. Zimansky, P. & A. Sagona. 2009. Ancient Turkey. London: Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Escuela Nacional de Antropología e HistoriaMexico CityMexico