Joseph Stewart received his Ph.D. in 1960 in speech pathology and audiology from the University of Iowa, devoting his doctoral dissertation under the direction of Professor Wendell Johnson to an anthropological investigation of the presence of stuttering among certain Indian tribes. Stewart interviewed mothers of children of the Cowichan Indians of Vancouver Island, a known stuttering group, and mothers of the Ute Indians of Utah, a known nonstuttering group. The Cowichans in contrast to the Ute Indians reported more severe punishment associated with toilet training and expectations for early development of motor skills, such as crawling and walking, and placed greater stress on language acquisition.
Stewart’s research demonstrated that cultural factors are an important consideration in the study of speech and language development and its disorders and a significant area of study for investigators.
- Stewart, J. L. (1960). The problem of stuttering in certain North American Indian Societies. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, Monograph Suppl 6, 1–87.Google Scholar