Encyclopedia of Geobiology

2011 Edition
| Editors: Joachim Reitner, Volker Thiel


Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-9212-1_175

Reefs are laterally confined submarine carbonate structures developed by the growth or activity of sessile benthic aquatic organisms, such as corals, bryozoans, sponges, algae, and microbes (Flügel and Kiessling, 2002). See entry “ Carbonate Environments” for further reading and classification.


  1. Flügel, E., and Kiessling, W., 2002. A new look at ancient reefs. In Kiessling, W., Flügel, E., and Golonka, J. (eds.), Phanerozoic Reef Patterns. Tulsa, OK: SEPM Special Publication Series No. 72, pp. 3–20.Google Scholar

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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011