Encyclopedia of Geobiology

2011 Edition
| Editors: Joachim Reitner, Volker Thiel

Raman Microscopy (Confocal)

  • Jan Toporski
  • Thomas Dieing
  • Christine Heim
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-9212-1_173


Confocal Raman imaging (CRI)


Confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) is a nondestructive analytical technique that merges Raman spectroscopy and confocal microscopy for the visualization of molecular information over a defined sample area.


Raman spectroscopy is well suited for studies in mineralogy and petrography, as it provides nondestructive mineral identification fast and with high specificity. In addition, Raman spectroscopy allows the characterization of complex organic materials, which makes it particularly useful in biogeoscience applications (Hild et al., 2008). This technique has long been applied in geosciences, for example, for the identification and characterization of minerals, or in the observation of mineral phase transitions in high and ultra-high pressure/temperature experiments. In most cases, measurements have been carried out in a micro-Raman set up, i.e., information was obtained from single or multiple points of interest on a sample....


Raman Spectrum Collection Efficiency Depth Resolution Raman Effect Confocal Raman Microscopy 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jan Toporski
    • 1
  • Thomas Dieing
    • 1
  • Christine Heim
    • 2
  1. 1.Wissenschaftliche Instrumente und Technologie GmbHUlmGermany
  2. 2.Geoscience Centre, Geobiology GroupUniversity of GöttingenGöttingenGermany