Encyclopedia of Global Justice

2011 Edition
| Editors: Deen K. Chatterjee

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

  • Avi Brisman
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-9160-5_661

In 1958, the United Nations held its first Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS I), where four conventions were adopted: the Convention on the Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone, Convention on the High Seas, Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of the High Seas, and Convention on the Continental Shelf. The environmental protections granted by the protections, however, were weak, and they neither established acomprehensive duty to protect marine environments, nor assigned duties and responsibilities to States to address marine pollution. None of these four conventions came into force.

The second United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS II), which was held in 1960, failed to reach an agreement on the extent of the territorial sea.

The United Nations Third Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III) began in 1973 and concluded in 1982. It resulted in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which was signed in 1982 and came into force...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Boyle AE (1985)Marine pollution under the law of the sea convention. Am JInt Law 79:347–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Craig RK, Dernbach JC (2002)Oceans and estuaries. In: Dernbach JC (ed) Stumbling toward sustainability. Environmental Law Institute, Washington, DC, pp227–255Google Scholar
  3. Dupuy P-M (1991)Soft law and the international law of the environment. Mich JInt Law 12:420–435Google Scholar
  4. Hunter D, Salzman J, Zaelke D(2002a) International environmental law and policy 2/e. Foundation Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Hunter D, Salzman J, Zaelke D(2002b) International environmental law and policy: treaty supplement, 2ndedn. Foundation Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Kwiatkowska B(1989) The two hundred mile exclusive economic zone in the new law of the sea, vol14, Publications on Ocean Development. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  7. Kwiatkowska B(2007) The law of the sea related cases in the international court of justice during the presidency of judge Stephen M. Schwebel, The law of the sea series. Vandeplas Publishing, Lake MaryGoogle Scholar
  8. Malloy BA (2010)On thin ice: how abinding treaty regime can save the Arctic.Hastings West-Northwest JEnviron Policy 16:471–511Google Scholar
  9. Stephens DG (1999)The impact of the 1982 law of the sea convention on the conduct of peacetime naval/military operations. Calif West Int Law J29:283–311Google Scholar
  10. U.N. Doc (1982)A/CONF.62/122, reprinted in 21 I.L.M. 1261Google Scholar
  11. Van Dyke JM, Zaelke D, Hewison G(1993) Freedom for the seas in the 21st century: ocean governance and environmental harmony. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Avi Brisman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA