Most international rights and obligations arise out of bilateral or multilateral treaties concluded by states, multinational corporations, nongovernmental organizations, and other entities with standing in the international community. Indeed, when states, multinational corporations, nongovernmental organizations, and other entities with standing in the international community enter into treaties, they procure reciprocal rights and obligations vis-a-vis one another. For example, under Chapter1, Article 2, paragraph 4 of the Charter of the United Nations, all of the members of the United Nations incur, among other things, obligations to refrain from violating the territorial integrity of each of the members of the United Nations, and, conversely, each of the members of the United Nations acquires, among other things, rights to take any member of the United Nations who violates its territorial integrity to the Security Council to have their dispute resolved.
Occasionally, however, an...
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