The Northumberland coast is dominated by Carboniferous rocks dipping generally south-east, so that the Coal Measures outcrop between Tynemouth and Amble, the underlying Millstone Grit at Warkworth and the Carboniferous Limestone to the north. In addition, the Whin Sill dolerite reaches the coast at Craster and Bamburgh. Much of the coast is cliffed, with interruptions at the mouths of river valleys, notably at Blyth, Amble and Berwick upon Tweed, but there is a substantial area of sand deposition north of Bamburgh and around Holy Island, where estuarine embayments are fringed by salt marsh.
Mean spring tide ranges are just over 4.0 m, diminishing slightly from south to north. North Shields has 4.3 m, Blyth 4.2 m, Coquet Roads 4.3 m, Amble 4.2 m, North Sunderland 4.1 m, Holy Island 4.2 m and Berwick upon Tweed 4.1 m.
The Northumberland Coast
North of the mouth of the River Tyne, a sandy cove is overlooked by a ruined priory and castle on a high promontory, Gibraltar Rock,...
KeywordsSugar Clay Quartz Silurian Sandstone
- Galliers JA (1970) The geomorphology of Holy Island, Northumberland, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Department of Geography Research Series, No. 6, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, p. 34Google Scholar