Situated in the North Atlantic Ocean between 63° 30' N and the Arctic Circle (66° 30' N), Iceland is a volcanic island with an area of 103,100 sq km. It is the outcome of Tertiary and Quaternary extrusions and intrusions of volcanic rocks (lavas, tuffs, pyroclastic sediment) from the mid-Atlantic Ridge, a zone of crustal plate divergence. It has been glaciated, and there are five residual ice areas. Glacial drift deposits are found widely, particularly bordering the residual glaciers, where terminal moraines indicate recession of ice margins in recent decades.
KeywordsCoastal Plain Sandy Beach Tidal Inlet Coastal Lowland Barrier Beach
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