India has a coastline that is more than 7,500 km long, including islands (Nayak 2005). The existing coastal geomorphology has evolved largely during and since the post-glacial marine transgression (Baba and Thomas 1999). There have been sea level fluctuations during the past 6,000 years, with a marked regression between 5,000 and 3,000 years bp. Storm surges, cyclones and rare tsunamis have modified coastal landforms, as have the tropical monsoon climate with its seasonal variations, and wave and current regimes.
There are extensive sandy beaches, some straight, others curved, often backed by beach ridges and dunes, especially along the central west coast. In the nearshore zone there are bars and shoals. Longshore drifting has nourished spits, and barriers have formed in front of lagoons. Rivers have built deltas, and there are intertidal flats, salt marshes and mudflats, with and without mangroves. There are cliffs with and without shore platforms. The pioneering study...
KeywordsCoral Reef East Coast Beach Ridge Nicobar Island Indian Coast
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