Encyclopedia of the World's Coastal Landforms

2010 Edition
| Editors: Eric C. F. Bird

Saudi Arabia, Red Sea Coast

  • Eric Bird
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-8639-7_188

Introduction

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has a Red Sea coast about 2,000 km long. The Arabian Peninsula has a steep western escarpment rising to 1,500–3,000 m at the edge of a plateau that declines gradually eastward, flattening to a broad coastal plain. The escarpment crest is only 40 km inland in the north, diverging to 150 km in the south. The landscape is largely desert. Numerous short, steep wadis descend the escarpment to the Red Sea coast, generally dry and gravelly but flowing briefly and torrentially after occasional heavy rain. Longer watercourses run eastward, but there are no permanent rivers. The climate is hot and arid.

Jeddah on the Red Sea coast has 23°C in January and 31°C in July, with a mean annual rainfall of 81 mm.

The Red Sea has surface temperatures rising to 31°C in the south and 27°C in the north in July, and between 24 and 26°C in January, falling to 20°C in the Gulf of Aqaba. Salinity is high (37–40 ppt) and evaporation from the sea surface of about 2 m/year...

Keywords

Coral Reef Saudi Arabia Reef Flat Fault Scarp Fringe Reef 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Behairy AKA (1983) Marine transgressions in the west coast of Saudi Arabia (Red Sea) between mid-Pleistocene and Present. Mar Geol 52:M25–M31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Behairy AKA, El-Sayed MK (1984) Carbonate sediment in a modern sea reef north of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Mar Geol 58:443–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Geith AM (2000) Sedimentary reflection of the coastal processes on the shoreline sediment along the eastern Red Sea coast, Saudi Arabia. Z Geomorphol 44:449–468Google Scholar
  4. Guilcher A (1955) Geomorphology of the northern part of the Farsan Bank (in French). Ann Inst Océanogr 30:55–100Google Scholar
  5. Gvirtzman G (1977) Morphology of the Red Sea fringing reefs, Vol 89. Memoirs, Bureau de Recherche Géologiques et Minière, Paris,pp 480–491Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eric Bird
    • 1
  1. 1.GeostudiesMelbourneAustralia