Encyclopedia of the World's Coastal Landforms

2010 Edition
| Editors: Eric C. F. Bird


  • Eric Bird
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-8639-7_184


The coast of Sudan is about 650 km long, and runs along the Red Sea. It is hot and arid: Port Sudan has a temperature of 23°C in January and 34°C in July, with a mean annual rainfall of 94 mm. The hinterland is high from south to north, but there is a coastal lowland consisting of broad pediments that descend from mountain fronts. There are several watercourses, but rivers flow only briefly after rare rain, and many do not reach the sea. Tectonic movements have continued through Quaternary times, and there are emerged coral reefs along the coast. Salinity is high (sometimes exceeding 40‰) in the Red Sea, where coral reefs are abundant, many of them with sand cays.

Winds and waves on the Red Sea are mainly northeasterly and easterly. Tide ranges are very small: Port Sudan has a mean spring tide range of 0.1 m, which is obscured by sea level fluctuations of 1 m above and below mean sea level, resulting from changes in barometric pressure and onshore and offshore winds....


Coral Reef Patch Reef Offshore Wind Mountain Front Outlying Reef 
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  1. Dalongeville R, Sanlaville P (1981) The marssa of the Sudanese shore of the Red Sea Bulletin Géographique Languédoc 15:39–48(in French).Google Scholar
  2. Rathjens C, Von Wissmann H (1933) Morphological problems in the Red Sea graben Petermanns Geogr Mitt 79:113–117 (in German). 183–187Google Scholar

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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eric Bird
    • 1
  1. 1.GeostudiesMelbourneAustralia