From the Rumanian border on the Kilijski branch of the Danube delta, the Ukraine coastline extends some 1,628 km, past the Crimea to Kerchenski Strait, the entrance to the Sea of Azov. Of this coastline, 486 km (29.9%) are erosional, 553 km (34%) stable, and 589 km (39.1%) prograded, but in recent decades some of the prograded sectors have become subject to erosion. The Ukraine coast also extends to the western part of the Sea of Azov, which is covered in a separate chapter ( Sea of Azov).
The climate is cool temperate with a cold winter, Odessa having mean monthly temperatures that range from −4°C in January to 22°C in July and a mean annual rainfall of 406 mm with a summer maximum. The prevailing onshore winds are from SW and SE, respectively, generating eastward and westward longshore drift along beaches, as indicated by the Tendra and Jarylgach spits. Tide range is very small in the northwest Black Sea.
KeywordsMarine Transgression Coastal Slope Danube Delta Hilly Country Holocene Marine
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