Encyclopedia of Sciences and Religions

2013 Edition
| Editors: Anne L. C. Runehov, Lluis Oviedo

Intelligences, Multiple

  • Seth Wax
  • Howard Gardner
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-8265-8_588

Related Terms


Since the early twentieth century, conceptions about intelligence in the West have been shaped by the work of Alfred Binet and the “IQ test” that he developed in Paris. In an attempt to devise a metric that could predict student success in school, Binet and those who followed him designed questions that measured verbal memory and reasoning, numerical processing, and the capacity to understand logical sequences. While these tests were useful in predicting outcomes in environments that relied heavily on such processing, such as schools, they sharply restricted what could count as intelligence. Such a one-dimensional definition of intelligence, supported by psychometricians who consistently cited data culled from paper-and-pencil tests, has remained dominant in many Western nations as well as other countries influenced by Western educational and/or testing practices.

Yet debate over...

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  1. Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  2. Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence reframed. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  3. Gardner, H., Damon, W., & Czikszentmihalyi, M. (2001). Good work: When excellence and ethics meet. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seth Wax
    • 1
  • Howard Gardner
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Harvard Graduate School of EducationCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Associate Professor of Religious StudiesManhattan CollegeRiverdaleUSA