The belief that human beings can transmigrate into machine bodies. Mind uploading is predicated on the claim that human minds are patterns of neurochemical activity taking place in the body/brain. As that pattern could, in theory, be replicated in another substrate (a computer), the mind can be copied to this new home and acquire immortality – barring catastrophic destruction of the machines where the mind is housed and backed up. Mind uploading first appeared in A.C. Clarke's science fiction novel The City and the Stars (1955) but gained its first sustained scientific description in Hans Moravec's Mind Children (1988). Moravec described an operation whereby the brain is carefully dissected and its pattern replicated in a machine thereby “transferring” consciousness from the biological body. Subsequent mind uploading advocates have claimed that noninvasive brain scans will provide sufficient resolution for mind uploading (i.e., copying) without actually killing the biological origin.