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Circulatory system; Heart


Cardiology is the medical discipline dealing with the heart, its functions, and its diseases.

During the course of the twentieth century, cardiovascular disease became more prevalent, especially in the industrialized nations, due to more sedentary lifestyles and altered diets (industrially refined, fat and sugar rich). In addition, the introduction of antibiotics toward the middle of the twentieth century curbed the death toll due to infection, hence extending life expectancy and increasing the likelihood and thus frequency of cardiovascular disease. These ongoing processes have led to an ever-increasing number of patients seeking the attention of cardiologists, a trend expected to carry on well throughout the next several decades.

With the first balloon angioplasty of a coronary artery performed by Andreas Gruentzig in Zurich in 1977 paving the way, Cardiology has been enriched by decidedly interventional treatment options....

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  • American College of Cardiology, (

  • American Heart Association, (

  • Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kardiologie – Herz- und Kreislaufforschung, (

  • European Society of Cardiology, (

  • Lichtlen, P. R. (2002). Geschichte der koronaren Herzkrankheit. In B. Lüderitz & G. Arnold (Eds.), 75 Jahre Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kardiologie – Herz- und Kreislaufforschung (pp. 269–306). Berlin/Heidelberg/New York: Springer.

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Correspondence to Marc W. Merx .

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© 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

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Merx, M.W., Kelm, M. (2013). Cardiology. In: Runehov, A.L.C., Oviedo, L. (eds) Encyclopedia of Sciences and Religions. Springer, Dordrecht.

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