Mathematics, Ancient and Medieval
After the boost given by the Greeks to mathematics, there was a long period in which creative mathematical activity declined in Europe. During the Middle Ages (Folkerts 2003, 2006), especially outstanding were the research and discoveries regarding algebra carried out in the cultural environment of Islam.
Interactions Between Logic and Metaphysics in the Medieval Period
The Greeks introduced logical arguments in mathematics and metaphysics. Medieval Christian theologians combined Greek rationality with Christian metaphysical statements (Plantinga 1967). Among the medieval arguments about the existence of God, the ontological argument (Hintikka 1969) shows with particular clarity the problematic relation between mathematical logic and metaphysics.
The Ontological Argument
The ontological argument is a type of reasoning on the existence of God based on metaphysical propositions about the existence of a necessary being and logical reasoning (Leach 2010)...
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