Reference work entry

In shunting, during scanning the 40S ribosomal subunit jumps from the region of capture of the mRNA at the 5′ m7 GpppN cap or at another sequence until it locates the translation initiation codon. Thus, the ribosome bypasses the 5′ leader. For efficient translation of the mRNA with an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES), the homeodomain protein Gtx translated from IRES and a 9 to 7 nucleotide long sequence complementary to a site in the 18S eukaryotic ribosomal subunit was necessary (Chappell SA et al 2004 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:9590). The presence of the Gtx translation element and the complementary 8 nucleotide sequence facilitates shunting even across an upstream uAUG codon in the leader and across a hairpin structure in the leader (Chappell SA et al 2006 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:9488).  scanning,  translational hopping,  IRES,  leader sequence,  Cap

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