Probably of Iranian origin, al‐˓Abbās Ibn Sa˓īd al‐Jawharī was one of the court astronomers/astrologers of Caliph al‐Ma˒mūn (r. 813–833) in charge of the construction of astronomical instruments. He participated in astronomical observations carried out in Baghdad in 829–830 and in Damascus in 832–833. He is said to have composed an astronomical handbook (Zīj), which is lost, except for indirect references (Sezgin 1973). In his house in Baghdad, meetings were held at which the participants discussed Ptolemy's Almagest, Euclid's Elements, and problems derived from the two books. A not yet studied manuscript, Kalām fī ma˓rifat bu˓d al‐shams ˓an markaz al‐arḍ (Speech about the Knowledge of the Distance between the Sun and the Center of the Earth), might be an extract of his Zīj or an independent astronomical treatise. In astrology, he was considered an expert at horoscopes determining an individual's length of life.
His main achievements in the mathematical sciences are in geometry. He...
- al‐Ṭūsī, Naṣīr al‐Dīn. al‐Risāla al‐shāfiya ˓ān al‐shakk fī'l‐khuṭūṭ al‐mutawāziya. Hyderabad, Dār al-Ma˓ārif 1359. 17–24.Google Scholar
- de Young, Gregg. Al‐Jawhari's Additions to Book V of Euclid's “Elements”. Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Arabisch‐Islamischen Wissenschaften Bd 11 (1997): 153–78.Google Scholar
- Ibn al‐Qifṭī. Ta˒rīkh al‐ḥukamā˒. Ed. Julius Lippert. Leipzig: Harrassowitz, 1903.Google Scholar
- Kalām fī ma˓rifat bu˓d al‐shams ˓an al‐arḍ. MS Bairūt, American University 223.Google Scholar
- Zīyādāt fī l‐maqāla al‐khāmisa min kitāb Uqlīdis. MS Tunis, Aḥmadīya 16167; MS Istanbul, Feyzullāh 1359; Tehran, Dānishkadehi Adab. Ğ 284; Hyderabad, Osmaniya University Library A 510.Google Scholar
- Jaouiche, Khalil. La théorie des parallèles en pays d;Islam: contribution à la préhistoire des géometries non‐euclidiennes. Paris: J. Vrin, 1986.Google Scholar
- Kennedy, E. S. A Survey of Islamic Astronomical Tables. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, n.s. 46.2 (1956): 123–77.Google Scholar
- Rosenfeld, Boris A. A History of Non‐Euclidean Geometry. Evolution of the Concept of a Geometric Space. New York: Springer, 1988.Google Scholar
- Sabra, A. S. Simplicius's Proof of Euclid's Parallels Postulate. Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 32 (1969): 1–24.Google Scholar
- ‐‐‐. al‐Jawharī. Dictiọnary of Scientific Biography. Vol. VII. Ed. Charles C. Gillispie. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1973. 79–80.Google Scholar
- Sezgin, Fuat. Geschichte des Arabischen Schrifttums. Leiden: Brill, 1970. Vols. III, V, and VI, 1970, 1973, and 1974.Google Scholar