Jai Singh, or Jai Singh Sawai (Jaya Siṃha Savā'ī), the eighteenth century statesman–astronomer of India, was born on November 3, 1688 to the royal house of Amber, in the present state of Rajasthan, India. His ancestors were semiautonomous rulers of their princely state under the Mughals and occupied important posts at the Mughal court. Jai Singh lived his life during one of the most troubled, uncertain, and critical periods of Indian history, and he was involved directly or indirectly in just about every political or military conflict of his time. With his diplomacy and political maneuverings, he acquired a great deal of authority and influence throughout the Mughal empire. Making full use of his prestige and power, Jai Singh embarked upon a program of reviving astronomy in his country.
Jai Singh displayed an early inclination toward astronomy and mathematics and soon acquired mastery over these two subjects. He realized that the astronomical predictions based on the Hindu, Islamic, or...
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