• Yun‐tao Ma et al.
Reference work entry


  1. 1.

    Zhen Jiu (针灸)/acupuncture/acumoxology. The term “acupuncture,” meaning “using needles to pierce” (Webster's College Dictionary), is translated from the Chinese term Zhen Jiu, in which Zhen means “using needling to pierce” and Jiu refers to burning Moxa 1 on the acupoints. Moxibustion refers to the application of heat stimulation with a moxa roll or cone on the point or affected site instead of using a needle. In Chinese, the term Zhen Jiu is often used as one concept, so, a new term acumoxology has been used to translate the original meaning of Zhen Jiu. The term “acumoxology” will be used if the text refers to both burning moxa and needling.

  2. 2.

    Jing Luo (经络)/meridian/channel/vessels. The English words meridian, channel, or vessel have been used to translate the Chinese term Jing Luo. Historically the concept of Jing Luo was related to arterial vessels; in this text the term vessel is used for the Chinese term Jing Luo instead of meridian or channel.

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  1. Deng Lian‐yue, and Huang Long‐xiang, ed. 国际针灸学教程, 邓良月, 黄龙祥主编, 华夏出版社, 北京 (Acumoxology Course for International Students). Beijing: Huaxia Publisher, 2004 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  2. Long‐xiang, Huang. 中国针灸学术史大纲, 黄龙祥, 华夏出版社, 北京 (Historical Development of Acupuncture). Beijing: Huaxia Publisher, 2000 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  3. Yun‐tao Ma, Ma, Mila Ma, and Zang Hee Cho. Biomedical Acupuncture for Pain Management: An Integrative Approach. St Louis: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, 2005 (

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