Alfonso X, King of Castile (1252–1284) and a patron of literature and learning, made an important effort to recover Arabic and, very especially, Andalusian astronomical materials by translating them first into Spanish and later into Latin. His collaborators were one Muslim convert into Christianity, eight Christians (of whom four were Spaniards and another four Italians) and a very important group of five Jews. Alfonso failed in his attempt to integrate in his team a Muslim scientist of the importance of Muḥammad al‐Riqūṭī but his interest for us here lies in the fact that his translations preserve Andalusian astronomical works which would have been lost otherwise. This is the case, for example, of the Libro de las Cruzes (Book of Crosses), a late Latin astrological handbook translated into Arabic in the early ninth century and revised, in the eleventh century, by a certain ˓Ubayd Allāh. Other works which are only known through his translations are the Lapidario(a book on the magical...
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