Al‐Bīrūnī

  • Abdul Latif Samian
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-4425-0_8961

Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad al‐Bīrūnī was born on Thursday, 3rd of Dhū al‐Hijjah, 362 H (4th September AD 973) at Madīnah Khwārizm. His exact birthplace is still a matter of controversy. It is conjectured that he was born in the outskirts (bīrūn) of Kath, at al‐Jurjāniyah, Khwārizm or at a place called Bīrūn, as implied by his nickname al‐Bīrūnī. The only clue given by al‐Bīrūnī was that he was born in a city in Khwārizm. The name Abū Rayḥān was given to him because of his love for sweet fragrance. Al‐Bīrūnī died on 443 H (AD 1051).

He knew Persian but preferred Arabic, because the latter was more suitable for academic pursuit. Most of his numerous books and compendia were written in Arabic. He received some of his early education under the tutelage of the astromathematician Abū Naṣr Manṣur b. ‘Alī b. Īrāq al‐Jilāni (d. ca. 427 H) and ˓Abd Al‐Samad b. ˓Abdal Samad from Khwārizm. This is in addition to his formal elementary religious education at the madrasah, an institution where...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

Primary Sources

  1. al‐Āthār al‐bāqiya min al‐qurūn al‐khāliya (The Chronology of Ancient Nations). English Trans. Edward Sachau. London: Minerva GMBH, 1879.Google Scholar
  2. al‐Qānūn al‐Mas˓ūdī (Canon Masudicus). Hyderabad: Osmania Oriental Publications Bureau, 1954–1956.Google Scholar
  3. Kitāb al‐Jamāhir fī marifat al‐jawāhir (Mineralogy). Ed. F. Krenkow. Hyderabad‐Dn: Osmania Oriental Publications Bureau, 1936.Google Scholar
  4. Kitāb al‐ṣaydanah fi˓l‐tibb (Materia Medica). Ed. and Trans. Hakim Mohammed Said, et al. Pakistan: Hamdard Academy, 1973.Google Scholar
  5. Kitāb al‐tafhīm li awā˓il ṣinā ˓at al‐ṭanjīm. Tehran: Jalal Huma'l, 1940. English Trans. R. Ramsay Wright. The Book of Instruction in the Art of Astrology. London: Luzac, 1934.Google Scholar
  6. Kitāb fī ifrād al‐maqāl fī amr al‐zilāl. Hyderabad‐Dn: Osmania Oriental Publications Bureau, 1948. Ed. and Trans. E. S. Kennedy. The Exhaustive Treatise on Shadows. Syria: University of Aleppo, 1976.Google Scholar
  7. Kitāb fī taḥqīq ma li˓l Hind (Alberuni's India). English Trans. Edward Sachau. London: Trubner, 1888.Google Scholar
  8. Taḥdīd nihāyat al‐amākin li‐taṣḥiḥ (The Determination of the Coordinates of Cities). English Trans. Jamil Ali. al‐Bīrūnī's Tahdid al‐Amakin. Beirut: American University of Beirut, 1967.Google Scholar

Secondary Sources

  1. Boilot, D. J. L’oeuvre d’ al‐Bīrūnī: essai bibliographique. Mélanges de'l Institut dominicain d’études orientales 2 (1955): 161–256.Google Scholar
  2. Kennedy, E. S. al‐Bīrūnī. Ed. Charles Gillispie. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Vol. 2. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1970. 147–58.Google Scholar
  3. Khan, Ahmad Saeed. A Bibliography of the Works of Abū'l Rāiḥān Al‐Bīrūnī. New Delhi: Indian National Science Academy, 1982.Google Scholar
  4. Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines. Rev. ed. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993.Google Scholar
  5. Nasr, Seyyed Hossein and William C. Chittick. al‐Bīrūnī: An Annotated Bibliography of Islamic Science. Tehran: Imperial Iranian Academy of Philosophy, 1975.Google Scholar
  6. Said, Hakim Mohammed and Ansar Zahid Khan. Al‐Bīrūnī – His Times, Life and Works. Karachi: Hamdard Foundation, 1979.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abdul Latif Samian

There are no affiliations available