Computing Science in Ancient India
India's romance with numbers can be seen in the mention of large numbers up to 10 19 in the Black Yajurveda. The sources for mathematical computing in India in the early phase are the Vedic books including the Brāhmana texts, the Śulbasūtras (texts on altar geometry), Jyotisha (astronomy), the Chandahśāstra (Pingala's book on prosody), Pānini's grammar, the Nātya Śāstra (Bharata Muni's text on music, drama, and dance), and nonmathematical texts such as the Mahābhārata and diverse śāstras (scientific and philosophical texts).
The Indian approach to the world was classificatory and computational. In astronomy, an attempt was made to reconcile the motions of the sun, the moon, and the planets that required periodic corrections. In grammar, the most economical rules for different constructions were sought. Not only the sign for zero, but also the binary number system, infinity and its operations, the ideas of metarules, algebraic transformation, recursion, hashing, mathematical logic,...
- Almeida, D. F., J. K. John, and A. Zadorozhnyy. Keralese Mathematics: Its Possible Transmission to Europe and the Consequential Educational Implications. Journal of Natural Geometry 20 (2001): 77–104.Google Scholar
- Cardona, G. Panini: His Work and Its Traditions: Background and Introduction. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1997.Google Scholar
- Datta, B. and A. N. Singh. History of Hindu Mathematics, A Source Book. Parts 1 and 2 (single volume). Bombay: Asia Publishing House, 1962.Google Scholar
- Kak, Subhash. The Paninian Approach to Natural Language Processing. International Journal of Approximate Reasoning 1 (1987): 117–30.Google Scholar
- ‐‐‐. Astronomy of the Vedic Altars. Vistas in Astronomy 36 (1993): 117–40.Google Scholar
- ‐‐‐. Three Old Indian Values of π. Indian Journal of History of Science 32 (1997): 307–14.Google Scholar
- ‐‐‐. Indian Binary Numbers and the Katapayadi Notation. Annals (B.O.R. Institute) 131 (2000a): 269–72.Google Scholar
- ‐‐‐. An Interesting Combinatoric Sutra. Indian Journal of History of Science 35 (2000b): 123–7.Google Scholar
- ‐‐‐. Birth and Early Development of Indian Astronomy. Astronomy Across Cultures: The History of Non‐Western Astronomy. Ed. Helaine Selin. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic, 2000c. 303–40.Google Scholar
- Pearce, Ian G. Indian Mathematics: Redressing the Balance. University of St. Andrews Archive: //www‐history.mcs.st‐andrews.ac.uk/history/Projects/Pearce/index.html.
- Rao, T. R. N. and Subhash Kak. Computing Science in Ancient India. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 2000.Google Scholar
- Seidenberg, A. The Origin of Mathematics. Archive for History of Exact Sciences 18 (1978): 301–42.Google Scholar
- Sen, S. N. and A. K. Bag. The Śulbasūtras. New Delhi: Indian National Science Academy, 1983.Google Scholar
- Srinivasiengar, C. N. The History of Ancient Indian Mathematics. Calcutta: The World Press, 1967.Google Scholar