Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism

2007 Edition
| Editors: David Gubbins, Emilio Herrero-Bervera

Magnetic Susceptibility, Anisotropy

  • František Hrouda
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-4423-6_185


The preferred orientation of minerals is typical of almost all rock types. In some rocks, for example, metamorphic mica‐schist, it is very strong and visible to the naked eye, while in others, like basalt and massive granite, it is very weak and detectable only by sensitive instruments. It develops during various geological processes, such as by water flow in sediments, by lava or magma flow in volcanic and plutonic rocks, or by ductile deformation in metamorphic rocks, and in turn, these processes can be assessed from it. The preferred orientation of rock‐forming minerals has been measured in thin sections using microscope and universal stage analysis since the beginning of the 20th century, while today, more sophisticated techniques have been developed (e.g., X‐ray pole figure goniometry, neutron pole figure goniometry, and electron backscatter diffractography).

Magnetic minerals, mostly occurring in rocks in accessory amounts, show preferred orientation. This...

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  • František Hrouda

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