Wetlands: Classification, Distribution, Function
Wetlands constitute a large variety in types and several classifications exist. Basic is hydrological conditions such as those providing hydrophilic vegetation to prevail. Water-saturated conditions often exist with direct connections between groundwater aquifers and wetland waters, i.e., open aquifers. In wetlands, saturated water conditions prevail near the surface with a water level close under the soil surface or often being at that level or even higher making up shallow surface water bodies.
Wetland functions in the landscape relate to environmental services and enhancing biodiversity conditions. Ecological functions besides those related to high biodiversity addresses water resources as contributing in the water balances and also water quality. However, wetlands often support high water content and turnover but also in drought conditions might store water being unfavorable to surrounding water bodies and downstream water courses. Regarding water quality, wetlands act...
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