Encyclopedia of Lakes and Reservoirs

2012 Edition
| Editors: Lars Bengtsson, Reginald W. Herschy, Rhodes W. Fairbridge

Water Exchange Between Littoral Zone and Open Lake Water

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-4410-6_244

Definition

Exchange flow – Predominantly horizontal countercurrent flows.

Density-driven flow – A flow driven by predominantly horizontal density gradients. Synonyms include gravity current and buoyancy-driven flow.

Thermally driven current – A gravity current in which the density gradient is the direct result of a spatial gradient in temperature.

Introduction

Adjacent littoral and pelagic (open) waters may have very different physical and chemical properties because of differences in proximity to land, depth, and vegetation density. For example, dissolved oxygen and pH were distinctly lower within a Glyceria aquatica stand in a pond than in the adjacent open water (Dvorák, 1970). Gradients have also been reported in turbidity, conductivity, alkalinity, and concentrations of various chemical constituents, such as Cl, K, Na, NO3-N, total phosphorus, PO4-P, and dissolved organic carbon across the littoral zone (Cardinale et al., 1997; James and Barko, 1991; Ng et al., 2010; Klosowski, 1992...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access

Bibliography

  1. Cardinale, B. J., Burton, T. M., and Brady, V. J., 1997. The community dynamics of epiphytic midge larvae across the pelagic littoral interface: do animals respond to changes in the abiotic environment? Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 54(10), 2314–2322, doi:10.1139/cjfas-54-10-2314.Google Scholar
  2. Coates, M., and Ferris, J., 1994. The radiatively driven natural convection beneath a floating plant layer. Limnology and Oceanography, 39(5), 1186–1194.Google Scholar
  3. Dale, H. M., and Gillespie, T., 1976. The influence of floating vascular plants on the diurnal fluctuations of temperature near the water surface in early spring. Hydrobiologia, 49(3), 245–256.Google Scholar
  4. Dvorák, J., 1970. Horizontal zonation of macrovegetation, water properties and macrofauna in a littoral stand of Glyceria aquatica (l.) Wahlb. in a pond in South Bohemia. Hydrobiologia, 35(1), 17–30, doi:10.1007/BF00143301.Google Scholar
  5. George, D. G., 1981. Wind-induced water movements in the south basin of Windermere. Freshwater Biology, 11(1), 37–60, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2427.1981.tb01241.x.Google Scholar
  6. George, D. G., 2000. Remote sensing evidence for the episodic transport of phosphorus from the littoral zone of a thermally stratified lake. Freshwater Biology, 43(4), 571–578, doi:10.1046/j.1365-2427.2000.00540.x.Google Scholar
  7. George, D. G., and Edwards, R. W., 1976. The effect of wind on the distribution of chlorophyll a and crustacean plankton in a shallow eutrophic reservoir. Journal of Applied Ecology, 13(3), 667–690.Google Scholar
  8. Haines, D. A., and Bryson, R. A., 1961. An empirical study of wind factor in Lake Mendota. Limnology and Oceanography, 6(356), 364.Google Scholar
  9. James, W. F., and Barko, J. W., 1991. Estimation of phosphorous exchange between littoral and pelagic zones during nighttime convective circulation. Limnology and Oceanography, 36(1), 179–187.Google Scholar
  10. James, W. F., Barko, J. W., and Eakin, H. L., 1994. Convective water exchanges during differential cooling and heating: implications for dissolved constituent transport. Hydrobiologia, 294(2), 167–176, doi:10.1007/BF00016857.Google Scholar
  11. Klosowski, S., 1992. Temporal and spatial variation of habitat conditions in the zonation of littoral plant communities. Aquatic Botany, 43(2), 199–208.Google Scholar
  12. Lovstedt, C. B., and Bengtsson, L., 2008. Density-driven current between reed belts and open water in a shallow lake. Water Resources Research, 44, doi:10.1029/2008WR006949.Google Scholar
  13. MacIntyre, S., Romero, J. R., and Kling, G. W., 2002. Spatial-temporal variability in surface layer deepening and lateral advection in an embayment of Lake Victoria, East Africa. Limnology and Oceanography, 47(3), 656–671.Google Scholar
  14. Monismith, S. G., Imberger, J., and Morison, M. L., 1990. Convective motions in the sidearm of a small reservoir. Limnology and Oceanography, 35(8), 1676–1702.Google Scholar
  15. Nepf, H. M., and Oldham, C. E., 1997. Exchange dynamics of a shallow contaminated wetland. Aquatic Sciences, 59(3), 193–213.Google Scholar
  16. Ng, H. T., da Motta, M. D., Jeppesen, E., and Søndergaard, M., 2010. Bacterioplankton in the littoral and pelagic zones of subtropical shallow lakes. Hydrobiologia, 646(1), 311–326, doi:10.1007/s10750-010-0177-z.Google Scholar
  17. Roget, E., and Colomer, J., 1996. Flow characteristics of a gravity current induced by differential cooling in a small lake. Aquatic Sciences, 58(4), 367–377.Google Scholar
  18. Roget, E., Colomer, J., Casamitjana, X., and Llebot, J. E., 1993. Bottom currents induced by baroclinic forcing in Lake Banyoles (Spain). Aquatic Sciences, 55(3), 206–227.Google Scholar
  19. Rueda, F. J., Schladow, S. G., Monismith, S. G., and Stacey, M. T., 2003. Dynamics of large polymictic lake. I: Field observations. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 129(2), 82–91, doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(2003) 129:2(82).Google Scholar
  20. Tanino, Y., 2004. Aquatic gravity currents through emergent vegetation. Master’s thesis, Cambridge, MA, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Earth Science and EngineeringImperial College LondonLondonUK