Water Exchange Between Littoral Zone and Open Lake Water
Exchange flow – Predominantly horizontal countercurrent flows.
Density-driven flow – A flow driven by predominantly horizontal density gradients. Synonyms include gravity current and buoyancy-driven flow.
Thermally driven current – A gravity current in which the density gradient is the direct result of a spatial gradient in temperature.
Adjacent littoral and pelagic (open) waters may have very different physical and chemical properties because of differences in proximity to land, depth, and vegetation density. For example, dissolved oxygen and pH were distinctly lower within a Glyceria aquatica stand in a pond than in the adjacent open water (Dvorák, 1970). Gradients have also been reported in turbidity, conductivity, alkalinity, and concentrations of various chemical constituents, such as Cl, K, Na, NO3-N, total phosphorus, PO4-P, and dissolved organic carbon across the littoral zone (Cardinale et al., 1997; James and Barko, 1991; Ng et al., 2010; Klosowski, 1992...
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