Structural Damage Caused by Earthquakes
Drift (Drift Ratio). Horizontal displacement of a building, story level, or vertical element divided by respective height.
Inelastic deformability. Ability to deform in the inelastic range of deformations without significant strength decay (analogous to ductility).
Spalling. Crushing or separation of exterior segments of concrete in compression, usually in cover concrete of structural elements.
Yield. Deformation level beyond which the rate of deformations increase rapidly under very little increase in force.
Earthquakes may cause structural and nonstructural damage during seismic excitations. Structural damage consists of distress induced in structural components of lateral and gravity-load-resisting systems, such as beams, columns, load-bearing walls, and shear walls, as well as horizontal diaphragms, such as slabs and roofs.
Seismic damage in structures is caused either by lack of sufficient strength or lack of inelastic deformability. Lack of strength is...
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