A storm surge is a rise of water above (1) the predicted astronomical sea tide or (2) a typical lake level. Storm surges occur because of severe hydrometeorological conditions associated with storms and tropical cyclones.
“Storm tide” refers to a rise of seawater above a reference altitude, thus including the astronomical tide.
Reduced atmospheric pressure: This process is known as the “inverse barometric effect,” by which a reduction of 1 hPa of pressure causes 1-cm water level elevation in stationary conditions.
Strong winds that may push water coastward, by creating currents that accumulate waters in shallow areas.
Strong waves that create a mean sea level rise as they are breaking (waves setup).
Typically, atmospheric forcing due to pressure and wind dominates for the large continental shelf, whereas wave setup becomes more important for steep submarine slopes.