Encyclopedia of Natural Hazards

2013 Edition
| Editors: Peter T. Bobrowsky


  • Murat SaatciogluEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-4399-4_318


Shear is force applied parallel to, or in the plane of a cross section of a structural member. Shear stresses are typically computed across a section that is perpendicular to the member length. Therefore, shear forces used in structural design are often perpendicular (transverse) to member length.


Shear forces generated by a natural hazard can occur in horizontal or vertical directions depending on the type of hazard. Earthquake-induced inertia forces are generated from accelerations that occur during seismic excitations. Although seismic shear forces on structures can be developed in any direction, it is generally accepted that they are more critical in the horizontal direction. Therefore, structures are routinely analyzed using horizontal (lateral) forces in two orthogonal directions of structural plan. These forces are obtained either from dynamic analysis or equivalent static load analysis. Equivalent static loads are computed by distributing “base shear...
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Aleszka, J., 2010. Fracture investigations. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.fractureinvestigations.com
  2. Saatcioglu, M., et al., 2001. Performance of reinforced concrete structures during the August 17, 1999 Earthquake in Turkey. Concrete International (American Concrete Institute), 23(3), 46–56.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity of OttawaOttawaCanada