Encyclopedia of Natural Hazards

2013 Edition
| Editors: Peter T. Bobrowsky

Livelihoods and Disasters

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-4399-4_220

Definition

The concept of livelihood reflects the ability of people to sustain their daily needs and draws on the combination of a large array of resources which are natural, physical, human, social, financial, and political in nature. These resources strongly interplay with the ability of people to face the threat of and recover from the impact of natural hazards. Therefore strengthening livelihoods and making them sustainable is a crucial component of disaster risk reduction.

Defining livelihoods

The concept of livelihood emerged in the 1980s as an alternative to the technocratic concept of “employment” to better describe how people struggle to make a living (Chambers and Longhurst, 1986; Swift, 1989). It emphasizes people’s view of their own needs. According to Chambers and Conway (1991, p. 1) sustainable livelihoods comprise “people, their capabilities and their means of living, including food, income and assets. Tangible assets are resources and stores, and intangible assets are...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Bibliography

  1. Anderson, M. B., and Woodrow, P., 1989. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Times of Disasters. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  2. Baird, A., O’Keefe, P., Westgate, K., and Wisner, B. 1975. Towards an explanation and reduction of disaster proneness. Bradford: Disaster Research Unit, University of Bradford. Occasional Paper No. 11.Google Scholar
  3. Benson, C., Twigg, J., and Myers, M., 2001. NGO initiatives in risk reduction: an overview. Disasters, 25(3), 199–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cannon, T., 2003. Vulnerability Analysis, Livelihoods and Disasters Components and Variables of Vulnerability: Modelling and Analysis for Disaster Risk Management. Manizales: Inter-American Development Bank//Instituto De Estudios Ambientales, Program on Indicators for Disaster Risk Management, Universidad Nacional de Colombia.Google Scholar
  5. Cannon, T., Twigg, J., and Rowell, J., 2003. Social Vulnerability, Sustainable Livelihoods and Disasters. London: Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance Department and Sustainable Livelihoods Support Office, Department for International Development.Google Scholar
  6. Chambers, R., 1994. The origins and practice of participatory rural appraisal. World Development, 22(7), 953–969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chambers, R., 1995. Poverty and livelihoods: whose reality counts? Environment and Urbanization, 7(1), 173–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chambers, R., and Conway, G. R., 1991. Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: Practical Concepts for the 21st Century. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies. IDS discussion paper 296.Google Scholar
  9. Chambers, R., and Longhurst, R., 1986. Trees, seasons and the poor. IDS Bulletin, 17(3), 44–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Davis, I., Haghebeart, B, and Peppiatt, D., 2004. Social Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis. Geneva: ProVention Consortium. Discussion paper and workshop report.Google Scholar
  11. de la Peña, A., 2008. Evaluating the World Bank’s concept of social capital: a case study in the politics of participation and organization in a rural Ecuadorian community. Ph.D. dissertation, Gainesville, University of Florida.Google Scholar
  12. Department for International Development, 1999. Sustainable Livelihoods Guidance Sheets. London: Department for International Development.Google Scholar
  13. Devereux, S., 2001. Livelihood insecurity and social protection: a re-emerging issue in rural development. Development Policy Review, 19(4), 507–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gaillard, J. C., 2010. Vulnerability, capacity, and resilience: perspectives for climate and development policy. Journal of International Development, 22(2), 218–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gaillard, J. C., and Cadag, J. R., 2009. From marginality to further marginalization: experiences from the victims of the July 2000 Payatas trashslide in the Philippines. Jàmbá: Journal of Disaster Risk Studies, 2(3), 195–213.Google Scholar
  16. Gaillard, J. C., and Maceda, E. A., 2009. Participatory 3-dimensional mapping for disaster risk reduction. Participatory Learning and Action, 60, 109–118.Google Scholar
  17. Gaillard, J. C., Maceda, E. A., Stasiak, E., Le Berre, I., and Espaldon, M. A. O., 2009. Sustainable livelihoods and people’s vulnerability in the face of coastal hazards. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 13(2–3), 119–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hoon, P., Singh, N., and Wanmali, S., 1997. Sustainable Livelihoods: Concepts, Principles and Approaches to Indicator Development. New York: United National Development Program.Google Scholar
  19. International Institute for Sustainable Development, InterCooperation, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Stockholm Environment Institute, 2007. Community-Based Risk Screening – Adaptation and Livelihoods – CRiSTAL v.3.2. Winnipeg: International Institute for Sustainable Development.Google Scholar
  20. Kelman, I., and Mather, T., 2008. Living with volcanoes: the sustainable livelihoods approach for volcano-related opportunities. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 172(3–4), 189–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Maskrey, A., 1989. Disaster Mitigation: A Community Based Approach. Oxford: Oxfam. Development Guidelines No, 3.Google Scholar
  22. Quarantelli, E. L., and Dynes, R. R., 1972. When disaster strikes: it isn’t much like what you’ve heard and read about. Psychology Today, 5(9), 66–70.Google Scholar
  23. Sanderson, D., 2000. Cities, disasters and livelihoods. Environment and Urbanization, 12(2), 93–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Scoones, I. 1998. Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: a Framework for Analysis. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies. IDS working paper 72.Google Scholar
  25. Scoones, I., 2009. Livelihoods perspectives and rural development. Journal of Peasant Studies, 36(1), 171–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sen, A., 1981. Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Sen, A., 1986. Food, Economics and Entitlements. Helsinki: World Institute for Development Economics Research, United Nations University. WIDER working paper 1.Google Scholar
  28. Start, D., and Johnson, C., 2004. Livelihood Options? The Political Economy of Access, Opportunity and Diversification. London: Overseas Development Institute. Overseas Development Institute working paper 233.Google Scholar
  29. Swift, J., 1989. Why are rural people vulnerable to famine? IDS Bulletin, 20(2), 8–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Twigg, J., 2001. Sustainable Livelihoods and Vulnerability to Disasters. London: Benfield Hazard Research Centre. Working Paper No 2.Google Scholar
  31. Twigg, J. 2004. Disaster Risk Reduction: Mitigation and Preparedness in Development and Emergency Programming. London: Humanitarian Practice Network. Good Practice Review No 9.Google Scholar
  32. Watts, M. J., and Bohle, H. G., 1993. The space of vulnerability: the causal structure of hunger and famine. Progress in Human Geography, 17(1), 43–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wisner, B., 2009. SHINK & Swim: Exploring the Link Between Capital (Social, Human, Institutional, Natural), Disaster, and Disaster Risk Reduction. Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery. Washington: World Bank.Google Scholar
  34. Wisner, B., Blaikie, P., Cannon, T., and Davis, I., 2004. At Risk: Natural Hazards, People’s Vulnerability, and Disasters. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  35. Wisner, B., Gaillard, J. C., and Kelman, I. (eds.), 2012. Handbook of Hazards and Disaster Risk Reduction. London: Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of EnvironmentThe University of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand