Hydroconsolidation; Near-surface subsidence; Sagging; Shallow subsidence
A process of collapse and compaction that occurs in silty to sandy sediment (soil) having a low bulk density, is saturated for sustained periods, but the water is subsequently removed (Krynine and Judd, 1957; Dudley, 1970). Infiltrating water enters the porous structure of the sediments weakening interparticle bonds of clay if present and reducing capillary tension between coarser soil particles that provided strength when unsaturated. Removal of these structural bonds causes overall consolidation and is manifested by settlement under loads and subsidence at the ground surface (Inter-Agency Committee on Land Subsidence in the San Joaquin Valley, 1958; Lofgren, 1960; Sajgalik, 1990).
Soils susceptible to hydrocompaction are geologically immature deposits or reclaimed soils that are uncompacted or unconsolidated predominantly composed of silt and sand grains with a small...
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