Chernozems are soils with a thick black, organic‐rich, surface layer. The name was coined by Dokuchaev in 1883 for the typical soils of the tall grass steppes in continental Russia. This article is based on FAO (2001).
Connotation. Black soils rich in organic matter; from R. chern, black, and zemlja, earth or land.
Synonyms. Equivalent to the chernozemic Soils in Canada, and to several sub‐orders of the mollisols (Soil Taxonomy). Black Soils is a common term used internationally.
a mollic horizon with a moist chroma of 2 or less if the texture is finer than sandy loam, or less than 3.5 if the texture is sandy loam or coarser, both to a depth of at least 20 cm, or having these chromas directly below any plow layer; and
concentrations of secondary carbonates starting within 200 cm from the soil surface; and
no petrocalcic horizon between 25 and 100 cm from the soil surface; and
no secondary gypsum; and