Encyclopedia of Soil Science

2008 Edition
| Editors: Ward Chesworth

Chernozems

  • Ward Chesworth
  • Marta Camps Arbestain
  • Felipe Macías
  • Otto Spaargaren
  • Otto Spaargaren
  • Y. Mualem
  • H. J. Morel‐Seytoux
  • William R. Horwath
  • G. Almendros
  • Ward Chesworth
  • Paul R. Grossl
  • Donald L. Sparks
  • Otto Spaargaren
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-3995-9_99

Chernozems are soils with a thick black, organic‐rich, surface layer. The name was coined by Dokuchaev in 1883 for the typical soils of the tall grass steppes in continental Russia. This article is based on FAO (2001).

Connotation. Black soils rich in organic matter; from R. chern, black, and zemlja, earth or land.

Synonyms. Equivalent to the chernozemic Soils in Canada, and to several sub‐orders of the mollisols (Soil Taxonomy). Black Soils is a common term used internationally.

Definition. Defined in FAO ( 2001) as soils having
  1. 1.

    a mollic horizon with a moist chroma of 2 or less if the texture is finer than sandy loam, or less than 3.5 if the texture is sandy loam or coarser, both to a depth of at least 20 cm, or having these chromas directly below any plow layer; and

     
  2. 2.

    concentrations of secondary carbonates starting within 200 cm from the soil surface; and

     
  3. 3.

    no petrocalcic horizon between 25 and 100 cm from the soil surface; and

     
  4. 4.

    no secondary gypsum; and

     
  5. 5.

    no uncoated...

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Bibliography

  1. FAO, 2001. Lecture notes on the major soils of the world. World Soil Resources Reports, 94. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 334 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Zech, W., and Hintermaier‐Erhard, G., 2007. Soils of the World. Heidelberg, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 130 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ward Chesworth
  • Marta Camps Arbestain
  • Felipe Macías
  • Otto Spaargaren
  • Otto Spaargaren
  • Y. Mualem
  • H. J. Morel‐Seytoux
  • William R. Horwath
  • G. Almendros
  • Ward Chesworth
  • Paul R. Grossl
  • Donald L. Sparks
  • Otto Spaargaren

There are no affiliations available