Cambisols are soils at an early (incipient) stage of soil formation. There is generally a brownish discoloration below the surface horizon, to mark the beginning of pedogenesis. The subsoil has a soil rather than a geological structure. This article is based on FAO (2001).
Connotation. Soils with beginning horizon differentiation evident from changes in color, structure or carbonate content; from L. cambiare, to change.
Synonyms. The name was first used in the legend to the FAO World Soil Map. The equivalent term in Soil Taxonomy is inceptisols. Other classifications use terms connoting brown soil e.g., ‘Braunerde’ (Germany), ‘Sols bruns’ (France), ‘Brown soils’/‘Brown Forest soils’ (USA pre‐Soil Taxonomy), and ‘Brunizems’ (Russia).
a cambic horizon; or
a mollic horizon overlying subsoil with low base saturation within 100 cm depth; or
one of the following:
an andic, vertic or vitric horizon starting...