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Microstructure, Engineering Aspects

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The structure of fine soils is mainly studied using the techniques of electron and optical microscopy; engineers, geologists and pedologists have all contributed. Various methods were reviewed by Smart and Tovey (1982) and Bisdom et al. (1988). Leng et al. (1993) summarized methods of analyzing electron micrographs. Optical micrographs are often reduced to black‐and‐white before analysis. Polarizing microphotometry is used to measure anisotropy; the values quoted here are for anisotropy index, A:

((1))

where MAX and MIN are the maximum and minimum intensities of light transmitted by a thin section, which is rotated between crossed polarizers. (Jarrett, 1972, found that photometric analyses gave measurements which depended upon the impregnant used in preparing samples.) Smart et al. (1992) combine image analysis with polarizing microscopy. Computerized tomography is also a useful interpretive tool.

Computer simulations of the internal mechanics of large groups of particles are also made...

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Hossner, L.R. et al. (2008). Microstructure, Engineering Aspects. In: Chesworth, W. (eds) Encyclopedia of Soil Science. Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-3995-9_357

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