Encyclopedia of Soil Science

2008 Edition
| Editors: Ward Chesworth

Chronology of Soils

  • Ward Chesworth
  • Marta Camps Arbestain
  • Felipe Macías
  • Otto Spaargaren
  • Otto Spaargaren
  • Y. Mualem
  • H. J. Morel‐Seytoux
  • William R. Horwath
  • G. Almendros
  • Ward Chesworth
  • Paul R. Grossl
  • Donald L. Sparks
  • Otto Spaargaren
  • Rhodes W. Fairbridge
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-3995-9_100
A timetable for an evolving soil on a geologic time scale, apart from recent anthropic (man‐made) modification, depends on:
  1. a.

    Parent material (which may be the geological bed‐rock, or wind‐blown cover such as loess or sand dunes, or littoral accumulations such as beachridges, or alluvial deposits associated with flood plains).

     
  2. b.

    Zonal climate (which may be roughly stated as “latitude”, but more precisely modified by oceanicity, or maritimicity, continentality, altitude and aspect, i.e., exposure to insolation, fetch, and prevailing wind).

     
  3. c.

    Geomorphic history (which generally spans the period of time since the latest ice ages, thus in North America and Europe since about 12 000 years ago, but in South America, South Africa, India and Australia, about 265 Myr. ago. Even more for North Africa and much of Arabia, where it is 445 Myr).

     

Study of these three variables is integral to what constitutes “Soil Stratigraphy”, a science that for understandable reasons found its birthplace...

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Bibliography

  1. Bridges, E.M., 1978. World Soils, 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 128 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Duchaufour, P., 1978. Ecological Atlas of Soils of the World. New York: Masson, 178 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Erhart, H., 1956. La Genese des Sols. Esquisse d'une Théorie Géoligique: Biostasie et Rhexistasie. Paris: Masson, 90 pp.Google Scholar
  4. Fairbridge, R.W., 1968. The Encyclopedia of Geomorphology. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1295 pp.Google Scholar
  5. Fairbridge, R.W., and Finkl, C.W., Jr., 1978. Geomorphic analysis of the rifted cratonic margins of Western Australia. Zeitschr. f. Geomorph., N.F., 22(4): 369–389.Google Scholar
  6. King, L.D., 1967. The Morphology of the Earth, 2nd edn. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ward Chesworth
  • Marta Camps Arbestain
  • Felipe Macías
  • Otto Spaargaren
  • Otto Spaargaren
  • Y. Mualem
  • H. J. Morel‐Seytoux
  • William R. Horwath
  • G. Almendros
  • Ward Chesworth
  • Paul R. Grossl
  • Donald L. Sparks
  • Otto Spaargaren
  • Rhodes W. Fairbridge

There are no affiliations available