Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2011 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Semantic Paraphasia

  • Hugh W. Buckingham
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-79948-3_922



The substitution of one full word for another on the basis of a meaning relation between the two.

Historical Background

Semantic word errors have been recorded in the study of aphasia practically since its first case descriptions several hundred years ago. All the literature in the history of the study of aphasia makes this observation, although the linguistic characterizations were scant. Johann Gesner in 1770 is credited with the first in-depth description of semantic paraphasias in fluent aphasia on the basis of association psychological theory (Benton, 2000).

Current Knowledge

Linguistic Structure

To begin with, we must outline the general typology of word connectivity, or how they are associated one with the other. The principal tenets of word relatedness stem from the centuries-old “association psychology,” which has its prodromes in the writings of Aristotle...

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References and Readings

  1. Benton, A. (2000).Exploring the history of neuropsychology: Selected papers (pp. 175–182). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Buckingham, H. (2002). The roots and amalgams of connectionism. In R. G. Daniloff (ed.),Connectionist approaches to clinical problems in speech and language (pp. 265–311). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  3. Buckingham, H. (2010). Aristotle’s functional association psychology. The syntagmatic and the paradigmatic axes in the neurolinguistics of Roman Jakobson and Alexander Luria: An anatomical and functional quagmire. A response to Alfredo Ardila’s reinterpretations and reclassifications. Aphasiology, 24(3), 395–403.Google Scholar
  4. Caramazza, A., & Hillis, A. (1990). Where do semantic errors come from? Cortex, 26(1), 95–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Cloutman, L., et al. (2009). Where (in the brain) do semantic errors come from? Cortex, 45(5), 641–649.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hugh W. Buckingham
    • 1
  1. 1.Sciences & Disorders and Interdepartmental Program in LinguisticsLouisiana State UniversityBaton RougeUSA