Physician, Preobrazhenskii Mental Hospital, Moscow, Russia.
Chair of Psychiatry, Preobrazhenskii Mental Hospital, Moscow, Russia.
Superintendent, Psychiatric Clinic, Moscow University, Moscow, Russia.
Major Honors and Awards
1890 Founded the Moscow Society of Neuropathologists and Psychiatrists.
Landmark Clinical, Scientific, and Professional Contributions
Korsakoff is best known for his work detailing the cognitive and physical effects of chronic alcoholism. His initial contribution to this area was his 1887 doctoral thesis, which found that many alcoholics demonstrated evidence of polyneuritis (e.g., muscular weakness and pain, staggering gait) as well as profound memory impairments and confabulation. Although others (e.g., James Jackson in 1822; Robert Lawson in 1879) had previously described some of these same symptoms, Korsakoff realized the cognitive and physical symptoms were characteristic of a single disease. In fact, Korsakoff initially named the disorder ps...
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References and Readings
Finger, S. (1994). Origins of neuroscience: A history of explorations into brain function (pp. 357–362). New York: Oxford University Press.
Beighton, P., & Beighton, G. (1997). The person behind the syndrome. New York: Springer.
Korsakoff, S. S. (1887). Disturbance of psychic function in alcoholic paralysis and its relation to the disturbance of the psychic sphere in multiple neuritis of non-alcoholic origin. Quoted by M. Victor, R. D. Adams, G. H. Collins (1971) The Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome. Oxford: Blackwell.
Korsakoff, S. S. (1889a). Psychic disorder in conjunction with peripheral neuritis. (trans: Victor, M., Yakovlev, P. I., 1955) Neurology, 5, 394–406.
Korsakoff, S. S. (1889b). Etude medico-psychologique sur une forme des maladies de la me moire. Revue Philosophie, 20, 501–530.
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Hampstead, B.M. (2011). Korsakoff (Korsakov), Sergei Sergeievich (1854–1900). In: Kreutzer, J.S., DeLuca, J., Caplan, B. (eds) Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-79948-3_631
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