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The lateral surface of each cerebral hemisphere is divided into four lobes (frontal, parietal, temporal, and the occipital), named for the bones that lie above them. The occipital lobe occupies the most posterior portion of the cerebral hemispheres. It is positioned behind the parietal and temporal lobes. The boundary between the parietal and occipital lobe is somewhat arbitrary, but typically, it is defined by a line that extends from the parieto-occipital sulcus to the preoccipital notch. The occipital lobe is essential for vision. There are two major gyri (cuneus and lingual) that are separated by the calcarine sulcus.
The occipital lobe contains the primary visual cortex and a number of visual association areas. The primary visual cortex resides on either side of the calcarine sulcus. The visual world is mapped onto to the primary visual cortex. The upper bank of the calcarine sulcus is the cuneus gyrus and...