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Intracranial Hemorrhage

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Definition

An intracranial hemorrhage occurs when there is bleeding inside the cranium, which results from a burst of a wall of a blood vessel in or around the brain, causing extravasation of blood outside of the vessel.

Current Knowledge

Intracranial hemorrhage can result from trauma or spontaneously from stroke caused either by extreme hypertension or by a rupture of a cerebral aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation. It is a medical emergency because of the increased intracranial pressure, which can displace or damage brain tissue. The diagnosis is based on imaging studies such as CT and MRI scanning.

There are two main types of intracranial hemorrhages: Intraaxial hemorrhage is bleeding within the brain itself, and includes intracerebral hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage. These tend to be more difficult to manage. Extraaxial hemorrhage is bleeding that occurs inside the skull but outside of the brain, and includes epidural hematoma, subdural hematoma, and subarachnoid...

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References and Readings

  • Broderick, J., Connolly, S., Feldmann, E., Hanley, D., Kase, C., Krieger, D., et al. (2007). Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in adults. 2007 update. A guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council, High Blood Pressure Research Council, and the Quality of Care and Outcomes in Research Interdisciplinary Working Group. Stroke, 38, 2001–2023.

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  • Schellinger, P. D., & Fiebach, J. B. (2004). Intracranial hemorrhage: The role of magnetic resonance imaging. Neurocritical Care, 1, 31–45.

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Roth, E.J. (2011). Intracranial Hemorrhage. In: Kreutzer, J.S., DeLuca, J., Caplan, B. (eds) Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-79948-3_2184

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