Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2011 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Intellectual Disability

  • Jaelyn R. Farris
  • Jody S. Nicholson
  • John G. Borkowski
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-79948-3_1566

Synonyms

Definition

Intellectual Disability is the currently preferred term for the condition historically referred to as Mental Retardation. Three decades ago, the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR; now known as the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities or AAIDD) proposed a definition of Mental Retardation that emphasized intelligence but also considered two other important factors – adaptive behavior and the time of occurrence of the disabling condition: “Mental Retardation refers to significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period” (Grossman, 1983, p. 1).

A change has occurred since the time of that definition, including a shift in terminology from Mental Retardation to Intellectual Disability (ID) as well as the designation of who...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Notes

Acknowledgment

The writing of this paper was supported, in part, by NIH training grant HD-07184.

References and Readings

  1. American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD). (2007). Retrieved December 10, 2008 from http://www.aaidd.org
  2. American Psychiatric Association [APA]. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. Bayley, N. (2005). Bayley scales of infant and toddler development (Bayley-III) (3rd ed.). San Antonio, TX: Pearson.Google Scholar
  4. Bruininks, R. H., Woodcock, R. W., Weatherman, R. F., & Hill, B. K. (1996). Scales of independent behavior – Revised. Chicago, IL: Riverside Publishing.Google Scholar
  5. Grossman, H. (Ed.). (1983). Classification in mental retardation. Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Deficiency.Google Scholar
  6. Harrison, P. L., & Oakland, T. (2003). Adaptive behavior assessment system (2nd ed.). San Antonio: TX: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  7. Haywood, H. C., & Brown, A. L. (1990). Dynamic approaches to psychoeducational assessment. School Psychology Review, 19, 411–422.Google Scholar
  8. Kaufman, A. S., & Kaufman, N. L. (2004). Kaufman assessment battery for children (2nd ed.). San Antonio, TX: Pearson.Google Scholar
  9. Lidz, C. S. (1997). Dynamic assessment approaches. In D. P. Flanagan, J. L. Genshaft, & P. L. Harrison (Eds.), Contemporary intellectual assessment: Theories, tests, and issues (pp. 281–296). New York: Guildford Press.Google Scholar
  10. Lidz, C. S., & Pena, E. D. (1996). Dynamic assessment: The model, its relevance as a nonbiased approach, and its application to Latino American preschool children. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 27, 367–372.Google Scholar
  11. Luckasson, R., Borthwick-Duffy, S., Buntinx, W. H. E., Coulter, D. L., Craig, E. M., Reeve, A. et al. (2002). Mental retardation: Definition, classification, and systems of support (10th ed.). Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Retardation.Google Scholar
  12. Mayo Clinic. (2007). “Phenylketonuria (PKU).” Retrieved November 21, 2008 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/phenylketonuria/DS00514
  13. Reschly, D. J., Myers, T. G., & Hartel, C. R. (Eds.). (2002). Mental retardation: Determining eligibility for social security benefits. Washington DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  14. Roid, G. (2003). Stanford-Binet intelligence scales (5th ed.). Chicago, IL: Riverside Publishing.Google Scholar
  15. Schalock, R. L., Luckasson, R. A., Shogren, K. A., Borthwick-Duffy, S., Bradley, V., Buntinx, W. H. E., et al. (2007). The renaming of mental retardation: Understanding the change to the term Intellectual Disability. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 45, 116–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984). Vineland adaptive behavior scales. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  17. Sparrow, S. S., Cicchetti, D. V., & Balla, D. A. (2005). Vineland adaptive behavior scales: (Vineland II), Survey interview form/caregiver rating form (2nd ed.). Livonia, MN: Pearson Assessments.Google Scholar
  18. Utley, C. A., Haywood, H. C., & Masters, J. C. (1992). Policy implications of psychological assessment of minority children. In H. C. Haywood & D. Tzuriel (Eds.), Interactive assessment (pp. 445–469). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  19. Wechsler, D. (2003). WISC-IV administrative and scoring manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  20. Wehmeyer, M. L., Buntinx, W. H. E., Lachapelle, Y., Luckasson, R. A., Schalock, R. L., Verdugo, M. A., et al. (2008). The intellectual disability construct and its relation to human functioning. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 46, 311–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Zigler, E., & Hodapp, R. M. (1986). Understanding mental retardation. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jaelyn R. Farris
    • 1
  • Jody S. Nicholson
    • 2
  • John G. Borkowski
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Notre DameNotre DameUSA
  2. 2.University of Notre DameINUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Notre DameNotre DameUSA