Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2011 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Intellectual Disability

  • Jaelyn R. Farris
  • Jody S. Nicholson
  • John G. Borkowski
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-79948-3_1566



Intellectual Disability is the currently preferred term for the condition historically referred to as Mental Retardation. Three decades ago, the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR; now known as the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities or AAIDD) proposed a definition of Mental Retardation that emphasized intelligence but also considered two other important factors – adaptive behavior and the time of occurrence of the disabling condition: “Mental Retardation refers to significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period” (Grossman, 1983, p. 1).

A change has occurred since the time of that definition, including a shift in terminology from Mental Retardation to Intellectual Disability (ID) as well as the designation of who...

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The writing of this paper was supported, in part, by NIH training grant HD-07184.

References and Readings

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jaelyn R. Farris
    • 1
  • Jody S. Nicholson
    • 2
  • John G. Borkowski
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Notre DameNotre DameUSA
  2. 2.University of Notre DameINUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Notre DameNotre DameUSA