Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2011 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Alternate Test Forms

  • Kyle E. Ferguson
  • Grant L. Iverson
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-79948-3_1170

Synonyms

Definition

Alternate test forms are designed to avoid or reduce content- or item-specific practice effects that are associated with repeated administrations of the same neuropsychological test(s) (Benedict & Zgaljardic, 1998). Examination of the manuals for many intellectual and neuropsychological tests illustrate that practice effects are common, especially over brief retest intervals (e.g., days or weeks). Regarding test construction, alternate test forms should include the same number of items, and the items should be of equivalent difficulty. Moreover, the test instructions, time limits, examples, and format should be identical to the original instrument developed during standardization, to reduce measurement error (Jackson, 2009). Of course, measurement error can never be eliminated. For example, content-sampling error and time-sampling error – inherent in all test–retest paradigms – are always concerns in developing alternate test...

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References and Readings

  1. Benedict, R. H., & Zgaljardic, D. J. (1998). Practice effects during repeated administrations of memory tests with and without alternate forms. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 20(3), 339–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Benedict, R. H. B. (2001). Brief visuospatial memory test - revised. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  3. Brandt, J., & Benedict, R. H. B. (2001). Hopkins verbal learning test-revised. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  4. Busch, R. M., Chelune, G. J., & Suchy, Y. (2006). Using norms in neuropsychological assessment. In D. K. Attix & K. A. Welsh-Bohmer (Eds.), Geriatric neuropsychology: Assessment and intervention (pp. 133–157). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  5. Dorans, N. J., & Holland, P. W. (2000). Population invariance and equitability of tests: Basic theory and the linear case. Journal of Educational Measurement, 37, 281–306.Google Scholar
  6. Jackson, S. L. (2009). Research methods and statistics: A critical thinking approach (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.Google Scholar
  7. Kolen, M. J., & Brennan, R. L. (2004). Test equating, scaling, and linking: Methods and practices (2nd ed.). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  8. Ormea, D., Reeb, M. J., & Riouxc, P. (2001). Premorbid IQ estimates from a multiple aptitude test battery: Regression vs. equating. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 16, 679–688.Google Scholar
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  10. Petersen, N. S., Kolen, M. J., & Hoover, H. D. (1989). Scaling, norming, and equating. In R. L. Linn (Ed.), Educational measurement (3rd ed., pp. 221–262). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  11. Salinsky, M. C., Storzbach, D., Dodrill, C. B., & Binder, L. M. (2001). Test-retest bias, reliability, and regression equations for neuropsychological measures repeated over a 12–16-week period. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 7(5), 597–605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Sattler, J. M. (2001). Assessment of children: Cognitive applications (4th ed.). San Diego: Jerome M. Sattler.Google Scholar
  13. Stern, R. A., & White, T. (2003). Neuropsychological assessment battery. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  14. Strauss, E., Sherman, E. M. S., & Spreen, O. (2006). A compendium of neuropsychological tests: Administration, norms, and commentary (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. White, T., & Stern, R. A. (2003). Neuropsychological assessment battery: Psychometric and technical manual. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  16. Wilkinson, G. S., & Robertson, G. J. (2006). Wide range achievement test  (4th ed.). Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kyle E. Ferguson
    • 1
  • Grant L. Iverson
    • 2
  1. 1.University of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of British Columbia British Columbia Mental Health & AddictionsVancouverCanada