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Constraint Induced Therapy

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Definition

Constraint induced therapy (CIT) typically refers to a therapeutic intervention involving restraint of a non-affected upper extremity combined with intensive practice with the affected upper extremity (e.g., Alberts, Butler, & Wolf, 2004; Charles & Gordon, 2005; Taub & Uswatte, 2005, 2006).

Historical Background

CIT has its origins in primate unilateral deafferentation studies, where it was observed that animals avoided use of their deafferented limb unless the intact limb was restrained (e.g., Taub & Uswatte, 2005, 2006). Concepts from CIT were then applied to humans in single case studies, case series, and small group studies, primarily with people who had sustained hemiplegia following stroke (Taub et al., 1993). The Extremity Constraint Induced Treatment (EXCITE) study is a randomized clinical trial involving over 200 individuals enrolled at 3–9 months post-stroke, using uniform CIT methods and measurement at six testing sites in the USA (Nichols-Larsen, Clark,...

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References and Readings

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Hrabok, M., Kerns, K.A. (2011). Constraint Induced Therapy. In: Kreutzer, J.S., DeLuca, J., Caplan, B. (eds) Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-79948-3_1087

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