The IQ (intelligence quotient) is a quantitative or statistical representation of an individual’s score on a standardized intelligence test. The IQ score has been widely utilized to compare an individual’s intellectual ability with the average score obtained by a sample of “similar” people, usually of the same age group. Thus for example, it is possible to state that a person’s intelligence, as reflected in an IQ test score, is higher (or lower) than the average or typical scores of their peers. There are numerous intelligence tests and various definitions of intelligence, so while the IQ gleaned from a test is akin to a “score” on that test, the interpretation and meaning may vary from test to test (intelligence).
The Foundations for the IQ Score
In 1884, Galton measured large numbers of people in an attempt to develop a test of intelligence. He measured many qualities in people, such as head size, reaction time, and strength of grip...
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout
Purchases are for personal use onlyLearn about institutional subscriptions
References and Readings
Bartholomew, D. J. (2004). Measuring intelligence: Facts and fallacies. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Boake, C. (2002). From the Binet-Simon to the Wechsler-Bellevue: Tracing the history of intelligence testing. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 24(3), 383–405.
Georgas, J., Weiss, L. G., van de Vijver, F. J. R., & Saklofske, D. H. (2003). Culture and children’s intelligence: Cross-cultural analysis of the WISC-III. San Diego, CA: Academic.
Gould, S. J. (1981). The Mismeasure of Man. New York: Norton.
Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2003). RIAS: Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.
Sattler, J. (2008). Assessment of children: Cognitive Foundations (5th ed.). San Diego, CA: Sattler Press.
Schultz, D. P., & Schultz, S. E. (1992). A History of Modern Psychology (5th Ed.). San Diego: Harcourt Brace Javanovich.
Tulsky, D. S., Saklofske, D. H., Chelune, G. J., et al. (2003). Clinical interpretation of the WAIS-III and WMS-III. San Diego, CA: Academic.
Tulsky, D. S., Saklofske, D. H., Wilkins, C., & Weiss, L. G. (2001). Development of a general ability index for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition. Psychological Assessment, 13, 566–571.
Wechsler, D. (1935). The concept of mental deficiency in theory and practice. Psychiatric Quarterly, 9, 232–236.
Wechsler, D. (1955). The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. New York: Psychological Corporation.
Wechsler, D. (1974). Intelligence: Definition, theory, and the IQ. In A. J. Edwards (Ed.), Selected papers of David Wechsler. New York: Academic.
Wechsler, D. (1997). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-third edition. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
Wechsler, D. (2003). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children-fourth edition. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
Wechsler, D. (2008). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-fourth edition. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
Editors and Affiliations
© 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC
About this entry
Cite this entry
Norstokke, D., Saklofske, D.H., Schoenberg, M.R. (2011). Intelligence Quotient. In: Kreutzer, J.S., DeLuca, J., Caplan, B. (eds) Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-79948-3_1075
Publisher Name: Springer, New York, NY
Print ISBN: 978-0-387-79947-6
Online ISBN: 978-0-387-79948-3