The term “intelligence” has been generally operationalized as a construct reflecting individual differences in cognitive abilities underlying various skills and behaviors such as educational and occupational success. However, the definition of “intelligence” and the abilities, aptitudes, and behaviors this construct includes has been a source of debate over the course of human history.
Many definitions of intelligence have emerged over the years. For example, Binet (Binet & Simon, 1905) defined intelligence in terms of judgment, practical sense, initiative, and adaptability; whereas Wechsler (1958) later defined it as “the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his/her environment” (p. 7). Moreover, intelligence was viewed by Wechsler as a composite of different abilities...
References and Readings
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