Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2011 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Intelligence

  • Yvonne Hindes
  • Mike R. Schoenberg
  • Donald H. Saklofske
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-79948-3_1061

Synonyms

Definition

The term “intelligence” has been generally operationalized as a construct reflecting individual differences in cognitive abilities underlying various skills and behaviors such as educational and occupational success. However, the definition of “intelligence” and the abilities, aptitudes, and behaviors this construct includes has been a source of debate over the course of human history.

Many definitions of intelligence have emerged over the years. For example, Binet (Binet & Simon, 1905) defined intelligence in terms of judgment, practical sense, initiative, and adaptability; whereas Wechsler (1958) later defined it as “the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his/her environment” (p. 7). Moreover, intelligence was viewed by Wechsler as a composite of different abilities...

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References and Readings

  1. Binet, A., & Simon, T. (1905). Méthode nouvelle pour le diagnostic du niveau intellectuel des anormaux. L'Année Psychologique, 11, 191–244.Google Scholar
  2. Carroll, J. B. (1997). Psychometrics, intelligence, and public perception. Intelligence, 24, 25–52.Google Scholar
  3. Deary, I. J. (2001). Intelligence: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Flynn, J. R. (2007). What is intelligence? Beyond the Flynn effect. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Gottfredson, L. S. (2008). Of what value is intelligence? In A. Prifitera, D. H. Saklofske, & L. G. Weiss (Eds.), WISC-IV applications for clinical assessment and intervention Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  6. Horn, J. L. (1998). A basis for research on age differences in cognitive capabilities. In J. J. McArdle & R. W. Woodcock (Eds.), Human cognitive abilities in theory and practice (pp. 57–87). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  7. Sattler, J. (2008). Assessment of children: Cognitive foundations La Mesa, CA: Author.Google Scholar
  8. Sternberg, R. J. (1986). Intelligence applied: Understanding and increasing your intellectual skills. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  9. Sternberg, R. J. (2007). Wisdom, intelligence, and creativity synthesized. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Sternberg, R. J., & Grigorenko, E. L. (2000). Teaching for successful intelligence. Arlington Heights, IL: Skylight.Google Scholar
  11. Wechsler, D. (1958). The measurement and appraisal of adult intelligence (3rd Ed.). Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yvonne Hindes
    • 1
  • Mike R. Schoenberg
    • 2
  • Donald H. Saklofske
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Applied PsychologyFaculty of Education, University of CalgaryCalgaryCanada
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of South Florida College of MedicineTampaUSA