Encyclopedia of Child Behavior and Development

2011 Edition
| Editors: Sam Goldstein, Jack A. Naglieri

Emotional Disturbance

  • Xenia Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous
  • Nikos Georgiou
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-79061-9_988



The term emotional disturbance encompasses diagnosable mental disorders of sufficient duration to meet diagnostic criteria specified within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM).


Section 300.7c(4) of the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA, 1997) (The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is a United States federal law that governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education, and related services to children with disabilities.) defines Emotional Disturbanceas “… a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree, which adversely affects educational performance: (a) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors; (b) an inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.
    American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (1997). Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with schizophrenia. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(5), 177S–193S.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    American Psychiatric Association. (2002). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, text revision: DSM-IV-TR (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barlow, D. H. (2002). Anxiety and its disorders: The nature and treatment of anxiety and panic (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Carr, A. (2006). The handbook of child and adolescent clinical psychology: A contextual approach (2nd ed.). USA: Routledge.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Courvoisie, H., Labellarte, M., & Riddle, M. (2001). Psychosis in children: Diagnosis and treatment. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 3(2), 79–98.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Eggers, C., Bunk, D., Volberg, G., & Ropcke, B. (1999). The ESSEN study of childhood-onset schizophrenia: Selected results. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 8(suppl 1), 122–128.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). (1997). (Pub. L. No. 105-17, 111 Stat. 37). US Department of Education.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kessler, R. C., Chiu, W. T., Demler, O., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-Month DSM-IV disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 617–627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lahey, B. B., Miller, T. I., Gordon, R. A., & Riley, A. W. (1999). Developmental epidemiology of disruptive behaviour disorders. In H. C. Quay & A. E. Hogan (Eds.), Handbook of disruptive behavior disorders (pp. 23–48). New York: Plenum Publishers.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    McClellan, J. M. (2005). Early onset schizophrenia. In B. J. Sadock & V. A. Sadock (Eds.), Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry (Vol. 2). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Robins, L. N., Tipp, J., & Pryzbeck, T. (1991). Antisocial personality. In L. N. Robins & D. A. Regier (Eds.), Psychiatric disorders in America (pp. 224–271). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Steele, R. G., Elkin, D., & Roberts, M. C. (2008). Evidenced-based therapies for children and adolescents. Issues in Clinical Child Psychology. New York: Springer Science LLC.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Strauss, C. C. (1994). Overanxious disorder. In T. H. Ollendick, N. J. King, & W. Yule (Eds.), International handbook of phobic and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zalsman, G., Oquendo, M. A., Greenhill, L., Goldberg, P. H., Kamali, M., Martin, A., et al. (2006). Neurobiology of depression in children and adolescents. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 15, 843–868.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xenia Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous
    • 1
  • Nikos Georgiou
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of NicosiaNicosiaCyprus